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    How useful
    ...
    in the {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=200&h=228} Soviet Union?
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=323&h=204} Text Box: Photo

    Contents
    Introduction. 3
    Identification and evaluation
    of Galina Shtinovasources. 3
    Reflection. 5
    References. 6
    Introduction
    This study will answer question «How useful is oral testimony for a historian studying the Era of Stagnation in the Soviet Union?». I want to investigate the difference in everyday lifestyle in the USSR during the rule of Brezhnev,[1] and compare it to the Thaw. I will use interviews with my family members who lived through this time period
    as a Young Pioneer, takenprimary source. I want to ask them about their memories, knowing that they are not likely to remember a lot of political events, but they can show lifestyle and mindset.
    I have chosen to investigate this question to talk to my grandparents about their lives
    from an unusual perspective. I have chosen to investigate this time period because the family archive
    ContentsReferences............................................................................................................................................ 6
    period of Khrushchev thaw changed popular culture in the USSR and modern Russia forever, giving birth to popular stars like Vladimir Vysotsky, who is often referred as «Bob Dylan of the Soviet Union»[2], Bulat Okudzhava, Yevgeny Yevtushenko and Bella Akhmadulina. When the era of Stagnation enforced censorship, the momentum was hard to stop, and texts were spread across the USSR in samizdat copies. Solzhenitsyn and Brodsky left the USSR, but kept on writing and publishing. Brezhnev was limiting the freedom, which is shown by the Bulldozer exhibition.[3]
    Identification and evaluation of sources
    This study will answer the question «How useful is oral testimony for a historian studying the Era of Stagnation in the Soviet Union?». I want to investigate the difference in the everyday life style in the USSR during the rule of Brezhnev, which lasted from 1964 to 1982, and to be able to compare it to Thaw. I will use interviews with my family members who lived through this time period as a primary source. I want to ask them about their memories of this time, knowing that they are not likely to remember a lot of political events, but they can talk about lifestyle, mindset and settings.
    I have chosen to investigate this question because it was a trigger for me to talk with my grandparents about their lives from an unusual perspective. I have chosen to investigate this time period because the period of Khrushchev thaw changed popular culture in the USSR and modern Russia forever, because it gave birth to popular stars like Vladimir Vysotsky, who is often referred as «Bob Dylan of the Soviet Union»[1], Bulat Okudzhava Yevgeny Yevtushenko and Bella Akhmadulina. When the era of Stagnation enforced censorship, the momentum was hard to stop, and a lot of texts were spread across the USSR illegally, in samizdat copies. Solzhenitsyn and Brodsky left the USSR, but kept on writing and publishing. Brezhnev was trying to limit the freedom of speech and creativity, which is shown by the Bulldozer exhibition.[2]
    The questions remains relevant today because it connects to the questions about the perception of historical events. Even though it’s easier for the historian to see a bigger picture from a distance, and it makes possible to see long term consequences of any historical event, it builds up from personal experience.
    The
    The first source
    ...
    the oral testimony. I interviewedtestimony of my grandfather
    ...
    interview. Before asking the questionstalk I said
    ...
    recorded and I will use itused for my
    ...
    share the memories of that time.memories. On that
    ...
    valuable for athe investigation of
    ...
    period, and it can beis more objective than newspapers of this time which are more likely to
    ...
    have some limitations it is just an example of privatelimitations. These memories which cannot show
    ...
    lives, so these memories can
    ...
    by Martin Mccauley[3],Mccauley[4], who is
    ...
    of the outsider because he is not Russian,outsider, which will probably be more
    ...
    useful to compare with the oral testimony.compare. Content of
    ...
    the historical investigation rather than recalling memories.investigation. Nevertheless the
    ...
    mentality still can have some
    Investigation
    General overview and evaluation of this time in the interviews is that there was too much propaganda everywhere, but people didn’t think about it. It was considered normal and lost most of the meaning. In the interview, my grandmother said: «We didn’t think about joining the youth organisations, because it wasn’t a question - everybody was in it, and it could give some privileges. We didn’t think a lot about Communism, but being involved in the organisation was normal and obligatory». The second interviewee supported this evidence: «There was too much control. People were usedWith regard to be in the party and doing thingcensorship, I found that they were toldinterview matched very closely to do, from childhood. It was a system or a frame, it was possible to progress on this certain path, but it was harder to change anything. A child was supposed to be educated within this system. They were doing good things, for example recycling, but there were too much ideological meaning. I wasn’t in the Komsomol for halfother sources. All of the year because when my grade was supposed to join it, I left the city to take part in a sport competition. When I came back, everyone was in Komsomol, so I enjoyed freedom from meetings until the next year». Both of the interviewees agreedthem showed that the reason for joining the Little Oktebrist, Young Pioneer or Komsomol organisation was not ideological, but practical. And the historical evidence supports that being in the party or in Komsomol was giving advantages to its members, such as sport events, career growth[4] and Student Construction Brigade[5], which was something like a paid work experience: «When you graduate from school, you need to build you careers, and it’s much easier to do if you are in the party. If you joined the party, you can have some privileges». The Komsomol was a strong tool of propaganda, even though the ideological aspect did not always fully involve its members, the membership was essential for the career, and the Komsomol was under control of KGB, which planted secret agents to the leading positions in the organisation, which is clear from primary documents.[6]
    Short
    short liberalization in culture led to increasing public interest to
    ...
    became available because it was printed in journals, «Noviy mir»iand «Yunist», which led to re-discovery of poets who were not published during the rule of Stalin, for example, Yesenin, Akhmatova, Tsvetaeva, and the begging of the career of the new generation of poets, Yevtushenko, Rozdestvenskiy and Voznesenkiy.journals[5]. However, the
    ...
    over literature, and that’s why «anti-Soviet»nbooks areso «anti-Soviet» books were strongly criticized,
    ...
    for «Doctor Zhivago».[7]Zhivago».[6] After Brezhnev
    ...
    stronger, and samizdat, the underground literature became more popular.samizdat gained popularity. From the
    ...
    sense of difference between these two time periods.difference. She talked
    ...
    to our city. They were reading theircity to read poetry, answeredanswer questions and talkedtalk to people.
    ...
    was really popular this time,popular, they were
    ...
    a great public interest to
    ...
    poetry is probably caused by the personal interest,
    ...
    historical sources are talkingtalk about hockey
    ...
    rather than poets.[8]poets.[7] The interviewee also commented on the literature:commented: «It was
    ...
    buy any literature translated from different languages,literature, even if it was notwasn’t banned. When
    ...
    Marx and Lenin.», andLenin.»,and explained why
    ...
    considered «anti-Soviet», were just in the beginning of their career and could print
    ...
    the journals like «Noviy mir»iand «Yunost».. Later we
    ...
    «Master and Margarita»abyMargarita» by Bulgakov, MandelshamMandelshtam and Evtushenko.
    ...
    buy these books and it was not allowed to re-print them,books, but we
    ...
    tried to findreprint them and print using a typewriter».illegally». Such strong
    ...
    from the Politburo and the fear of not following the orders, caused by dramatic experience of the purges, which isPolitburo, supported by
    ...
    accountable to anyone.”[9]
    Fashion
    anyone.”[8]
    General overview and evaluation of this time
    in the USSR sufferedinterviews is that there was too much propaganda everywhere, but it was considered normal and lost most of the meaning. In the interview, my grandmother said: «Joining Youth Organisation could give some privileges… And being involved was obligatory». The second interviewee supported this evidence: «A child was supposed to be educated within this system. They were doing good things, like recycling, but there were too much ideological meaning.». Both of the interviewees agreed that the reason for joining youth organisations[9] was not ideological, but practical. The historical evidence supports that being in the party or in Komsomol was giving advantages, such as sport events, career growth[10] and Student Construction Brigade[11], a paid work experience: «When you graduate from school, you need to build you careers, and it’s much easier to do within the ideologyparty. You could have some privileges». The Komsomol was a strong tool of propaganda, even though the ideological aspect did not always fully involve its members, the membership was essential for the career, and the Komsomol was under control of KGB, which planted secret agents to the leading positions in the organisation, which is clear from primary documents.[12] However, the interview concentrates on cynical attitude to propaganda, which could develop if people have critical thinking skills, and leaves out stories when children were brainwashed, like Pavlik Morozov[13] who became the subject of songs, poems, opera and six biographies.[14] Even though Stalin’s cult of personality was attacked by Khrushchev, the story of Pavlik still influenced generations of children and encouraged them to inform the authorities about their parents[15], and it was not criticized mid-198os, when Yuri Druzhnikov published an investigation about him.[16]
    Fashion in the USSR
    was rejected
    ...
    to be anti-communist,[10]anti-communist,[17] so there
    ...
    fashion slightly changed through time,changed, it was
    ...
    the same materials and templates, and the interview supported this fact:templates: «Everyone in
    ...
    cloth was produced».produced»[18]. There were
    ...
    look different. Stilyagi[11]Stilyagi[19] were a
    ...
    fashion, and who were attacked
    ...
    the soviet media[12]media[20] or forced
    ...
    wearing «provocative outfits»rbyoutfits» by the Komsomol Voluntary People’s Druzhina,DND[21], which faded
    ...
    there were completely different ways
    ...
    them in two different region. According to the first interview, inIn Sverdlovsk «stilyagi»twere«stilyagi» were making their
    ...
    friend had light blue skinny jeans, which he made by himself.homemade jeans. Teachers used
    ...
    blame him on Komsomol meetings for wearing them. I don’t remember what happened next but he was not allowed to wear them.it. Your grandfather
    ...
    tie from the belt his sister’s
    ...
    to his trousers».trousers»[22]. Even though «stilyagi»twere«stilyagi» were trying to
    ...
    or international sailors. Theysailors who could bring some fashion magazines or cloth. And youngmagazines. Young people wanted
    ...
    appeared. They used to meetmet tourists and make deals with them.made deals. In Odessa,
    ...
    American jeans. We didn’t have these things, so weThey wanted to
    ...
    having this type of outfit was a luxury». The idea about privileged background of those who could follow pro-Western fashionIt is supported
    ...
    komsomol leaders were among those who benefited most
    ...
    officials started to wear jeans.[13][14]wearing jeans.[23][24] This example shows how limited can be the oral testimony, becasethat one person
    ...
    might not notbe true for
    ...
    momentum of creativity and interest.creativity.
    Reflection
    ...
    they help the research to take
    ...
    that I really like talking to the members of my family about historical events and seeing if from a personal angle.events. However, it
    ...
    the whole picture.picture and inaccuracy. My interviewees tended to give vague timeline, saying, “it happened when I was in high school… Or maybe in university”, and there was the same problem remembering specific places. This type of study might be useful for understanding the mindset and giving a personal angle, however, it might not be reliable for recalling specific facts and making conclusions. It can
    ...
    be shaped too much by the
    ...
    the youth organisationas were popular or notorganizations and whether the poetry waswere popular. One
    ...
    to translate without losing some meaning, and it’s hard to show exactlyaccurately, as well as the tone
    ...
    speech and intonations which present in the conversation.
    Word
    intonations.
    Word
    count: 2 134198
    References
    Ball, A. (2003). Imagining America. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.
    ...
    McCauley, M., 2007. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union. London: Routledge
    Chernyshova, N. (n.d.). Soviet consumer culture in the Brezhnev era.
    [1]Figes, O. (2007). The whisperers. New York: Metropolitan Books.
    Журнальный зал. (2016). Катриона Келли, Павлик Морозов и Лубянка. [online] Available at: http://magazines.russ.ru/voplit/2006/3/dru12.html [Accessed 10 Oct. 2016].
    [1]which lasted from 1964 to 1982
    [2]
    Economist.com. (2016).
    ...
    Sep. 2016].
    [2]

    [3]
    Nevergoodbyefilm.com. (2016).
    the Guardian. (2014). Bulldozer: the underground exhibition that revolutionised Russia's art scene. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/17/bulldozer-underground-exhibition-revolutionised-russian-art [Accessed 3 Sep. 2016].
    [3][4] A British
    ...
    Russian affairs.
    [4]Matthews, M. (2011). Education in

    [5] «Noviy mir» and «Yunist», which led to re-discovery of poets who were not published during
    the Soviet Union : policiesrule of Stalin, like Yesenin, Akhmatova, Tsvetaeva, and institutions since Stalin : Routledge Library Editions: Education. Routledge.
    [5] Youth in
    the former Soviet South. (2012). London: Routledge.
    [6] Blogs.bu.edu. (2016). The Komsomol | Guided History. [online] Available at: http://blogs.bu.edu/guidedhistory/russia-and-its-empires/sigalit-vasilver/ [Accessed 29 Sep. 2016].
    [7]Countries.ru.
    begging of the career of the new generation of poets, Yevtushenko, Rozdestvenskiy and Voznesenkiy.
    [6] Countries.ru.
    (2016). Наука
    ...
    Sep. 2016].
    [8]

    [7]
    Holmgren, B.
    ...
    University Press.
    [9]

    [8]
    V. D.
    ...
    143–150, p144.
    [9] the Little Oktebrist, Young Pioneer and Komsomol organisation

    [10] Matthews, M. (2011). Education in the Soviet Union : policies and institutions since Stalin : Routledge Library Editions: Education. Routledge.
    [11] Youth in the former Soviet South. (2012). London: Routledge.
    [12] Blogs.bu.edu. (2016). The Komsomol | Guided History. [online] Available at: http://blogs.bu.edu/guidedhistory/russia-and-its-empires/sigalit-vasilver/ [Accessed 29 Sep. 2016].
    [13] Pavlik Morozov was known for supposedly denouncing his father to the authorities for the corruption, happened to 1932 and appeared to be a myth, but it still had a great impact on the culture and morality.
    [14] Журнальный зал. (2016). Катриона Келли, Павлик Морозов и Лубянка. [online] Available at: http://magazines.russ.ru/voplit/2006/3/dru12.html [Accessed 10 Oct. 2016].
    [15] Figes, O. (2007). The whisperers. New York: Metropolitan Books.
    [16] Журнальный зал. (2016). Катриона Келли, Павлик Морозов и Лубянка. [online] Available at: http://magazines.russ.ru/voplit/2006/3/dru12.html [Accessed 10 Oct. 2016].
    [17]
    Yurchak, A.
    ...
    University Press.
    [11]

    [18]From the oral testimony
    [19]
    Karpova, Y.
    ...
    Its Fashion.
    [12]

    [20]
    Журнальный зал.
    ...
    Aug. 2016].
    [13]McCauley,

    [21]Komsomol Voluntary People’s Druzhina
    [22]From the interview
    [23]McCauley,
    M., 1993.
    ...
    London: Routledge
    [14]

    [24]
    McCauley, M.,
    (view changes)
    2:24 am
  2. page test edited What are {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=384&h=674} …

    What are{http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=384&h=674}
    How useful is oral testimony for a historian studying
    the strengths and limitationsEra of John Hatcher’s “The Black Death” to the historian seeking to understandStagnation in the impact {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=200&h=228} Soviet Union?
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=323&h=204} Text Box: Photo
    of Galina Shtinova as a Young Pioneer, taken from the Black Death on England?
    Table of Contents:
    family archive
    ContentsReferences............................................................................................................................................ 6

    Identification and evaluation of sources: .…………………………………………. p. 2
    Investigation: .………………………………………………………………………... p. 3
    Reflection: .…………………………………………………………………………… p. 6
    Name: Zoremsanga Hualngo
    Candidate Number:
    Total Word Count: 2195
    Identification and Evaluation of Sources:
    sources
    This investigationstudy will focus onanswer the strengths and limitationsquestion «How useful is oral testimony for a historian studying the Era of John Hatchers “The Black Death” to historians seekingStagnation in the Soviet Union?». I want to understandinvestigate the impact ofdifference in the Black Death on England. To keep this essayeveryday life style in focus of the main question, I will focus onUSSR during the political, economic and social impactsrule of the Black DeathBrezhnev, which lasted from 1964 to 1982, and the study willto be conducted on theable to compare it to Thaw. I will use interviews with my family members who lived through this time period 1345-1351.
    The first source
    as a primary source. I want to ask them about their memories of this time, knowing that will be consideredthey are not likely to remember a lot of political events, but they can talk about lifestyle, mindset and settings.
    I have chosen to investigate this question because it was a trigger
    for detailed use is The Black Death by John Hatcher,me to talk with my grandparents about their lives from an unusual perspective. I have chosen to investigate this time period because the focus pointperiod of Khrushchev thaw changed popular culture in the investigation. The book tunnels on a village affected by the plagueUSSR and somodern Russia forever, because it gave birth to popular stars like Vladimir Vysotsky, who is half a noveloften referred as well as informing«Bob Dylan of the reader. The other source is The Great Mortality by John Kelly which describesSoviet Union»[1], Bulat Okudzhava Yevgeny Yevtushenko and Bella Akhmadulina. When the progressera of Stagnation enforced censorship, the Black Death throughout Europe.
    Source: Hatcher, John. The Black Death. The intimate Story of
    momentum was hard to stop, and a Villagelot of texts were spread across the USSR illegally, in Crisis, 1345-1350, Phoenix, 2009
    The Black Death
    samizdat copies. Solzhenitsyn and Brodsky left the USSR, but kept on writing and publishing. Brezhnev was trying to limit the freedom of speech and creativity, which is shown by John Hatcher recounts the storyBulldozer exhibition.[2]
    The questions remains relevant today because it connects to the questions about the perception
    of historical events. Even though it’s easier for the historian to see a single village suffering throughbigger picture from a distance, and it makes possible to see long term consequences of any historical event, it builds up from personal experience.
    The first source I have selected for
    the Black Death. Hatcherdetailed analysis is a historian specialising in the Middle Age thusoral testimony. I interviewed my grandfather Valentin Runov and my grandmother Galina Shtinova. The origin of the source is a dependable author.[1] Hisan informal interview. Before asking the questions I said that it will be recorded and I will use it for my history research. From this we can deduce its purpose is to entertainshare the reader as well as inform them, following the lifememories of the parish priest along with thosethat time. On that basis it is valuable for a investigation of the villagerskey question because they show memories of real people who experienced this time period, and allowing usit can be more objective than newspapers of this time which are more likely to sympathise withhide any problems in aims of propaganda. Nevertheless the characters. However, the limitationsource does have some limitations it is that Hatcher created characters to suitjust an example of private memories which cannot show the storyfull picture and haslikely to fill in thebe misleading because of these gaps between sourcesin content. The potential problem with this interview is that it’s very close to narrate coherently. He has also had to dramatize certainthe events to stay with his stylein personal lives, so these memories can be more positive because of story-telling,the nostalgia for example ‘Agnes…begged them to go to the church and fetch a priest’[2].
    Source: Kelly, John.
    younger age. The great mortality. London: Harper Perennial, 2006
    John Kelly’s The Great Mortality gives us an overview
    original language of the Black Death and its effects. Althoughinterview also causes some limitations, because some meanings might be lost in translation.
    The second source is
    a medical scientist, Kelly’s book went on to become a great success[3]. The purposeSoviet Union 1917-1991 by Martin Mccauley[3], who is a modern British historian, specializing in Russia and China. From the origin of the booksource we can deduce its purpose is to follow the spreadevaluate events of the plague and then narrate events to help visualiseSoviet History from the speedRussian Revolution and terror ofCivil War until the plague: ‘the fateend of the pestilential Genoese, who fled Caffa’.[4] The readerUSSR. On this basis it is informedvaluable for an investigation of the situation as a whole,key question because it was published in 1993, after the details helping us visualiseSoviet Union collapsed, so it will not be greatly affected by the scenes of death. WheneverCold War mentality, and the plague moved on tohistorian will have a major location Kelly gives us a quick backgroundview of the areaoutsider because he is not Russian, which will probably be more objective and then contrasts itespecially useful to compare with the ravagesoral testimony. Content of the disease. However, the limitation of The Great Mortalitythis source is by attempting to coveruseful and reliable because it is based on the progress ofhistorical investigation rather than recalling memories. Nevertheless the plague throughout Europe, Kelly was unable to exploresource does have some limitations for this particular investigation because the Cold War mentality still can have some effect it had on people’s mind-sets.the interpretation.
    Investigation
    The Black Death was devastating for Europe. Common estimates are that a thirdGeneral overview and evaluation of this time in the populationinterviews is that there was wiped out[5]. The experiencetoo much propaganda everywhere, but people didn’t think about it. It was considered normal and lost most of living through such a turbulent time along with the reduction in population greatly changed society. Hatcher presentsmeaning. In the eventsinterview, my grandmother said: «We didn’t think about joining the youth organisations, because it wasn’t a question - everybody was in it, and it could give some privileges. We didn’t think a part novel, part factual book. This essay will scrutinise his facts to check if he keeps tolot about Communism, but being involved in the truth by looking at the changesorganisation was normal and obligatory». The second interviewee supported this evidence: «There was too much control. People were used to be in religion, which in turn affected the economyparty and then leadsdoing thing that they were told to do, from childhood. It was a consideration of the impactsystem or a frame, it was possible to progress on society.
    Hatcher claims that
    this certain path, but it was harder to change anything. A child was supposed to be educated within this system. They were doing good things, for example recycling, but there were too much ideological meaning. I wasn’t in the powerKomsomol for half of the Churchyear because when my grade was immensesupposed to join it, I left the city to take part in Medieval Europe,a sport competition. When I came back, everyone was in Komsomol, so I enjoyed freedom from meetings until the Black Death shook the foundationsnext year». Both of belief. The Church kept the people obedient and humble by ‘chanting prayers and psalms’[6] and reminding peasants they would be ‘damned in hell’[7] if they didn’t repent, while news ofinterviewees agreed that the Black Death only increased their fear and devotion of God inreason for joining the hopes that He would save them. However,Little Oktebrist, Young Pioneer or Komsomol organisation was not ideological, but practical. And the Church’s power began waning as bishops began ‘proclaiminghistorical evidence supports that confession might be made to a lay person, even to a woman’,[8] yet afterbeing in the plague Hatcher portrays a character undergo ‘a state of religious ecstasy’, implying that religion still had power. It is safe to say that Hatcher was rightparty or in many regards as CatholicismKomsomol was a forced religion on English people. It is not difficultgiving advantages to understand why people began losing their faith in God even though thereits members, such as sport events, career growth[4] and Student Construction Brigade[5], which was something like a ‘42paid work experience: «When you graduate from school, you need to 45 percent mortality rate among English parish priests’ as many clerics were unwillingbuild you careers, and it’s much easier to do their duty andif you are in the party. If you joined the party, you can have some privileges». The Komsomol was a strong tool of propaganda, even fled fromthough the scene.[9] Pairing this along withideological aspect did not always fully involve its members, the “tithes as well as profits from offerings, donations…paymentmembership was essential for services, and so on”[10] only led to feelings of betrayal. The Middle Ages Unlocked is intended to inform the audience about Medieval lifecareer, and has reputable historians as authors so can be trusted. However, Hatcherthe Komsomol was wrongunder control of KGB, which planted secret agents to show religious tendencies which imply the Church still had a strong hold overleading positions in the people, whereas it ‘found itself with many of its most experienced members dead’.[11] Ziegler’s articleorganisation, which is a valuable source asclear from primary documents.[6]
    Short liberalization in culture led to increasing public interest to poetry and literature, which became available because
    it was publishedprinted in journals, «Noviy mir»iand «Yunist», which led to re-discovery of poets who were not published during the History Today magazinerule of Stalin, for example, Yesenin, Akhmatova, Tsvetaeva, and has an objective purpose to inform the readerbegging of the Black Death’s course.
    According to Hatcher, changes in
    career of the politicalnew generation of poets, Yevtushenko, Rozdestvenskiy and religious hierarchy meant peasants were given better wages and working conditions. AtVoznesenkiy. However, the beginning of his book, Hatcher writes ‘the overcrowded land struggled each yearparty was still in control over literature, and that’s why «anti-Soviet»nbooks are strongly criticized, and Pasternak was forced to feed allrefuse from the mouths that depended on it’[12]Nobel Prize for «Doctor Zhivago».[7] After Brezhnev came to power, censorship became stronger, and thensamizdat, the arrivalunderground literature became more popular. From the interview with my grandmother I got a sense of difference between these two time periods. She talked about famous poets and their role in the plague changed everything. Initially, ‘the best-run farms…was deteriorating rapidly because… full-timesociety: «I used to like poetry. Once Evtushenko and part-time farm servants had died orAchmadulina came to our city. They were ill’[13] but soon after, villagers got ‘twice the normal daily pay’ as lords attemptedreading their poetry, answered questions and talked to collect the harvest.[14] Again, Hatcher’s views mostly match what other sources havepeople. It was really popular this time, they were like celebrities», however, this perception of a great public interest to say. Just before the Black Death living conditions were worseningpoetry is probably caused by the personal interest, because the historical sources are talking about hockey players and Bowsky argues thatactors being popular rather than poets.[8] The interviewee also commented on the Black Deathliterature: «It was ‘a necessary…correctiveimpossible to an overpopulated Europe’.[15] However, Goldsmith states that in France, the plague stoppedbuy any literature translated from different languages, even if it was not banned. When Brezhnev came to power, there were a timelittle good books in shops. There were plenty of progress.[16] Bowskybooks by Brezhnev, Marx and Goldsmith have reasonable views as Goldsmith’s study is France which is different from Bowsky’s general point about Europe,Lenin.», and bothexplained why it was easier to find books aim to analyse living conditions, leaving them dependable sources. Two main problems occurred for lords afterbefore: «Many of those, who were later considered «anti-Soviet», were just in the plague, ‘As manpower shortages developed, labor costs exploded while the pricesbeginning of farm animals plummeted’.[17] Once a tenant died, they would give up their best animal tocareer and could print their lord, but with so many tenants dead,books in the lords hadjournals like «Noviy mir»iand «Yunost». Later we were reading samizdat books, «Master and Margarita»aby Bulgakov, Mandelsham and Evtushenko. It was impossible to trybuy these books and sellit was not allowed to re-print them, reducing all animal prices. Nevertheless, accordingbut we still tried to the Economist the costs of living increased as well because there weren’t enough labourers to harvest leading to inflated prices of wheat.[18] This evidence coming fromfind them and print using a reliable and neutral source contradicts Hatcher’s pointtypewriter». Such strong censorship might be caused by chaotic nature of an economic boost for peasants although it later ties into the storyinstruction from 1368-71 where a bumper harvest created a reduction in grain prices.
    Hatcher then implies that these economic changes disrupted traditional social values. Due to
    the reputation ofPolitburo and the Church, medieval society was very fearful of God and ‘The folkfear of Walsham did not lack for remindersfollowing the orders, caused by dramatic experience of how their actions in this world would determine their life in the next’.[19] Yet for somepurges, which is supported by the Black Death outweighed this fearfollowing quote “was not restrained by provisions of law and people could be separated into two distinct types: ‘the pious’[20]hence was arbitrary and ‘reckless folk who…live fornot accountable to anyone.”[9]
    Fashion in
    the present’.[21] Either way,USSR suffered from the plague killed from each groupideology and was rejected by the outcomeparty, because it was aconsidered to be anti-communist,[10] so there were no remarkable change in life which went against religious teachings. People became warierfashion between the Thaw and if any outsider were to have been to an infected area, they ‘shouted at him to leave Walsham immediately’[22] According to historical records, the fearEra of Stagnation, however the plague did affect people differently. Boccaccio claimed ‘Some thought that by living quietly they could avoidinterview gave slightly different angle on fashion depending on the danger. Other believed that…free livingregion. Even though the fashion slightly changed through time, it was made on the best waysame factories using the same materials and templates, and the interview supported this fact: «Everyone in the Soviet Union used to preventwear the plague’[23] butsame cloth, because the plague killed indiscriminately. Boccaccio’s The Decameron provides detailssame cloth was produced». There were some people who tried to look different. Stilyagi[11] were a subculture of young people, who were trying to follow American or European fashion, and who were attacked by the plague fromsoviet media[12] or forced to stop wearing «provocative outfits»rby the timeKomsomol Voluntary People’s Druzhina, which makes it extremely valuable but has limitations since it isfaded out to the middle 60-s. From the interviews I made a multitudeconclusion that there were completely different ways to be one of them in two different stories and isregion. According to the first interview, in Sverdlovsk «stilyagi»twere making their outfits by themselves: «My friend had light blue skinny jeans, which he made by himself. Teachers used mainly as literature insteadto blame him on Komsomol meetings for wearing them. I don’t remember what happened next but he was not allowed to wear them. Your grandfather was one of them too, he made a historical document.[24] The first recorded uses of quarantine also came attie from his sister’s dress, platform shoes and sewed fairy lights with a battery to his trousers». Even though «stilyagi»twere trying to follow the timewestern fashion, it converted to an exaggerated form of fashion because of the plague. People were afraidlack of information about the disease spreadingsubject. My grandfather, who lived in Ukraine, argued and only knew this methodtalked about them with a slight hostility because of protecting themselves since their doctors ‘seemed helpless in curingmostly privileged background which gave them a possibility to get American jeans, but shared the disease’.[25] Hatchersame desire to look different: «Their parents could be accused of being negligent by not includingdiplomats or international sailors. They could bring some fashion magazines or cloth. And young people wanted to look different. And that’s when the medical perspective of the plague but the limitation of tryingblack market appeared. They used to follow a story only allowed himmeet tourists and make deals with them. In Odessa, some people could have American jeans. We didn’t have these things, so we wanted to dobuy these things in any possible way. We had everything in Soviet Union, so having this briefly.
    In conclusion, it could be argued that Hatcher’s method
    type of informing the reader about the Black Deathoutfit was ineffective because he had to create a gripping story as well as give the factsluxury». The idea about privileged background of those who could follow pro-Western fashion is supported by the situation. Still, forhistorian McCauley, who said that the komsomol leaders were among those newwho benefited most and some party officials started to wear jeans.[13][14] This example shows how limited can be the subject,oral testimony, becase one person cannot see a gripping story with facts would leave its mark. For historians tryingfull picture, and the experience might not not true for different regions.
    This study provided evidence and research which allows
    to get a worm’s eye viewconclude that the culture and fashion of living in the Black Death,Era of Stagnation showed increasing interest to the book also provides this opportunity because it is aboutwestern way or life, mostly generated by the daily lives of villagers which Hatcher included scenesshort liberalisation during Khruchew’s Thaw, but control of the party over the society was too strong for visible changes, however, the underground culture, black markets and samizdat developed to increasekeep the authentic feelingmomentum of it being a medieval village.creativity and interest.
    Reflection
    An issue raised by this investigation isOral testimonies are valuable for the challenge undertaken byhistorian because they help the authorresearch to describe just one village in great detail. Focusing in on suchtake a small area limits what the author can say,personal angle, and one village does not prove the general events. This approach gives the reader a way to empathise with the characters in The Black Death than they would with numbers. However, as EH Carr wrote deciding which facts become ‘historical fact’ can change the whole perspective of the era, so Hatcher’s method would accentuate the importance of certain moments which may not have been the case at the time.
    A second issue within this investigation was whether history should
    be used purely to teach or to entertain as well. Instead of taking the more traditional route and giving the factsinvolving. I realized that I really like talking to the reader, telling a story allowed Hatcher to entertain, attracting those who want to learnmembers of my family about the Black Deathhistorical events and enjoy the experience. Entertainment and knowledge don’t have to be sacrificedseeing if from a personal angle. However, it causes the other is being used, for example when Master John talkedlimitation, such as inability to Richard about a cure, Richard told himsee the then common theory of the plague passing by exhalation. Along with facts, the readerwhole picture. It can feel John’s desperation for a cure. Some may question Hatcher using his imagination to fillbe useful in studying the gapsregional differences, but in the end he gave the facts we knowit is really hard to reach a general conclusion and portrayed it in the way he felt would be most effective.
    The final issue that came from this essay
    is deciding which sources are trustworthy. Hatcher relied mostly on records taken in manor meetings and since there was no purposelikely to them other than to record facts, he was safe in using them.[26] Onbe shaped too much by the internet though, anybody posts whatever they want. One waypersonal perception. This investigation also proved the difficulty of checking is seeing what the site hasreaching general conclusions in a society that was large and complex, which I tackled trying to loseconclude if they are caught lyingthe youth organisationas were popular or not and whether the second ispoetry was popular. One issue raised by this study relating to see whether the author is a certified person whomethods used by historians is obliged to tell the truth. There was alsochallenge of translating the realisation that historians studyingsources from different time periods encountered different problems. When studyinglanguages. I tackled this issue by translating the oral testimonies recorded as a Medieval period historians do not have many sourcesconversation. In terms of this particular study, this issue manifested itself as a real difficulty, because some words are impossible to usetranslate without losing some meaning, and haveit’s hard to rely on imagination until something new is found inshow exactly the future, but when studying a modern period, the numbertone of sources can be overwhelmingspeech and the task becomes to decideintonations which are worthwhile.
    Bibliography
    Association,
    present in the conversation.
    Word count: 2 134
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    Countries.ru. (2016). Наука и культура в период «оттепели». [online] Available at: http://www.countries.ru/library/countries/russia/dolgov/history2_18.html [Accessed 3 Sep. 2016].
    Economist.com. (2016).
    The music of Vladimir Visotsky: Russia's silenced voice of the people | The Economist. [online] Available at: http://www.economist.com/blogs/prospero/2011/12/music-vladimir-visotsky [Accessed 3 Sep. 2016].
    Karpova, Y. (2009).
    The Jnt. Professor John Hatcher - FacultyStilyagi: Soviet Youth (Sub)Culture of History. n.d. 27 September 2016. <http://www.hist.cam.ac.uk/directory/mjh1001@cam.ac.uk>.
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    the 1950s and et al. The Decameron. OxfordIts Fashion.
    Nevergoodbyefilm.com. (2016).
    Articles about the "Bulldozer Exhibition". [online] Available at: http://nevergoodbyefilm.com/Never_Goodbye/Articles_about_the_%22Bulldozer_Exhibition%22.html [Accessed 3 Sep. 2016].
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    Cultural exchange & the Cold War.
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    Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
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    Bulldozer: the underground exhibition that revolutionised Russia's art scene. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/17/bulldozer-underground-exhibition-revolutionised-russian-art [Accessed 3 Sep. 2016].
    The Nation. (2016). Uncertainty and Anxiety: On Khrushchev’s Thaw. [online] Available at: https://www.thenation.com/article/uncertainty-and-anxiety-khrushchevs-thaw/ [Accessed 3 Sep. 2016].
    Witness. (2014).
    The Black Death: A Turning PointKhrushchev Thaw.
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    in History? Holt, Rinehartthe former Soviet South. (2012). London: Routledge.
    Yurchak, A. (2006). Everything was forever, until it was no more. Princeton, NJ: PrincetonUniversityPress.
    Журнальный зал. (2016). Кто на пьедестале, а кто в толпе? Стиляги и идея советской «молодежной культуры» в эпоху «оттепели». [online] Available at: http://magazines.russ.ru/nz/2004/4/ra4.html [Accessed 3 Sep. 2016].
    Matthews, M. (2011). Education in the Soviet Union : policies
    and Winston, 1971.
    Goldsmith, James. L. THE CRISIS OF THE LATE MIDDLE AGES: THE CASE OF FRANCE. n.d. 5 October 2016. <http://fh.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/4/417.extract>.
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    institutions since Stalin : Routledge Library Editions: Education. Routledge.
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    The Black Death:Soviet Union. London: Longman.
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    The Intimate StoryRise and Fall of a Village in Crisis, 1346-1350.the Soviet Union. London: Phoenix, 2009.
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    Chernyshova, N. (n.d.). Soviet consumer culture in the Brezhnev era.
    [1] Economist.com. (2016).
    The Great Mortality: An intimate historymusic of Vladimir Visotsky: Russia's silenced voice of the Black Death. London: Harper Perennial, 2005.
    Marks, Lara.
    people | The Black DeathEconomist. [online] Available at: http://www.economist.com/blogs/prospero/2011/12/music-vladimir-visotsky [Accessed 3 Sep. 2016].
    [2] Nevergoodbyefilm.com. (2016). Articles about the "Bulldozer Exhibition". [online] Available at: http://nevergoodbyefilm.com/Never_Goodbye/Articles_about_the_%22Bulldozer_Exhibition%22.html [Accessed 3 Sep. 2016].
    the Guardian. (2014). Bulldozer: the underground exhibition that revolutionised Russia's art scene. [online] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/17/bulldozer-underground-exhibition-revolutionised-russian-art [Accessed 3 Sep. 2016].
    [3] A British historian
    and former senior lecturer at the TransformationSchool of Slavonic and East European Studies, at University College London. He is a member of the West. n.d. 7 October 2016.
    Meade, Melinda S.
    Limehouse Group of Analysts and Michael Emch. Medical Geography. 3rd. Guilford Press, 2010.
    Polack, Gillian
    a regular commentator in the media on Russian affairs.
    [4]Matthews, M. (2011). Education in the Soviet Union : policies
    and Katrin Kania. The Middle Ages Unlocked: A Guide to Lifeinstitutions since Stalin : Routledge Library Editions: Education. Routledge.
    [5] Youth
    in Medieval England, 1050-1300. Amberley, 2015.
    Services, Dnsmaster lt. John Kelly. n.d. 27 September 2016. <http://us.macmillan.com/author/johnkelly>.
    Snell, Melissa. 'The Black Death: A Personal History' by John Hatcher. 22 July 2015. 21 September 2016.
    Umberto, Bosco. Giovanni Boccaccio. n.d. 6 October 2016. <https://global.britannica.com/biography/Giovanni-Boccaccio>.
    W., C. Plagued by Dear Labour. 21 October 2013. 5 October 2016. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2013/10/economic-history-1>.
    Ziegler, Philip.
    the former Soviet South. (2012). London: Routledge.
    [6] Blogs.bu.edu. (2016).
    The Black Death, Part II. 1 January 1969. 6 October 2016. <http://www.historytoday.com/philip-ziegler/black-death-part-ii>.
    [1] Association, The Jnt. Professor John Hatcher — Faculty of
    Komsomol | Guided History. [online] Available at: http://www.hist.cam.ac.uk/directory/mjh1001@cam.ac.uk, Last accessed 27th September 2016
    [2] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. The intimate Story of a Village in Crisis, 1345-1350, Phoenix, 2009, pp. 170
    [3] Services, Dnsmaster It. John Kelly | Authors | Macmillan.
    http://blogs.bu.edu/guidedhistory/russia-and-its-empires/sigalit-vasilver/ [Accessed 29 Sep. 2016].
    [7]Countries.ru. (2016). Наука и культура в период «оттепели». [online]
    Available at: http://us.macmillan.com/author/johnkelly, Last accessed 27th September 2016
    [4] Kelly, John. The great mortality. London: Harper Perennial, 2006, pp. 80
    [5] Meade, Melinda S., and Michael Emch. Medical Geography. 3rd ed., Guilford Press, 2010.
    [6] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 72
    [7] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 106
    http://www.countries.ru/library/countries/russia/dolgov/history2_18.html [Accessed 1 Sep. 2016].
    [8] Hatcher, John.Holmgren, B. (2003). The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 126Russian memoir. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press.
    [9] Kelly, John. The Great Mortality. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2005,V. D. Stelmakh, “Reading in the context of censorship of the Soviet Union”, Libraries and Culture 36:1 (2001), pp. 224143–150, p144.
    [10] Polack, Gillian, and Katrin Kania. The Middle Ages Unlocked: A Guide to Life in Medieval England, 1050-1300. Amberley, 2015.Yurchak, A. (2006). Everything was forever, until it was no more. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    [11] Ziegler, Philip.Karpova, Y. (2009). The Black Death, Part II | History Today (Available at: http://www.historytoday.com/philip-ziegler/black-death-part-ii, Last accessed 6th October 2016)Stilyagi: Soviet Youth (Sub)Culture of the 1950s and Its Fashion.
    [12] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 43
    [13] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 202
    [14] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 214
    [15] Bowsky, William M. The Black Death: A Turning Point in History? Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.
    [16] Goldsmith, James. L. THE CRISIS OF THE LATE MIDDLE AGES: THE CASE OF FRANCE.
    Журнальный зал. (2016). Кто на пьедестале, а кто в толпе? Стиляги и идея советской «молодежной культуры» в эпоху «оттепели». [online] Available at: http://fh.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/4/417.extract, Last accessed 5th October 2016
    [17] Kelly, John.
    http://magazines.russ.ru/nz/2004/4/ra4.html [Accessed 6 Aug. 2016].
    [13]McCauley, M., 1993.
    The Great Mortality. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2005, pp. 205
    [18] website, economist.com. Economic history: Plagued by dear labour | The Economist. Available at:http://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2013/10/economic-history-1, Last accessed 5th October 2016
    [19] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 38
    [20] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 70
    [21] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 153
    [22] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 152
    [23] Giovanni Boccaccio, et al. The Decameron. Oxford University Press, 1998
    [24] Bosco, Umberto. Giovanni Boccaccio. Available at: http://www.https://global.britannica.com/biography/Giovanni-Boccaccio, Last accessed 6th October 2016
    [25] Marks, Lara.
    Soviet Union 1917-1991. London: Routledge
    [14] McCauley, M., 2007.
    The Black DeathRise and the TransformationFall of the West | History Today (Available at:http://www.historytoday.com/lara-marks/black-death-and-transformation-west, Last accessed 7th October 2016)
    [26] Snell, Melissa. 'The Black Death: A Personal History' by John Hatcher (Available at: http://historymedren.about.com/od/theblackdeath/fr/hatcher.htm, Last accessed 21st September 2016)
    Soviet Union. London: Routledge
    (view changes)
    2:24 am
  3. page test edited ... John Hatcher’s “A Village in Crisis” “The Black Death” to the Table of Contents: Ident…

    ...
    John Hatcher’s “A Village in Crisis”“The Black Death” to the
    Table of Contents:
    Identification and evaluation of sources: .…………………………………………. p. 2
    ...
    Total Word Count: 2195
    Identification and Evaluation of Sources:
    ...
    on the religious,political, economic and
    ...
    The book focusestunnels on a
    Source: Hatcher, John. The Black Death. The intimate Story of a Village in Crisis, 1345-1350, Phoenix, 2009
    ...
    John Hatcher is useful for analysing the Black Death at a focused level since it recounts the
    ...
    a single village. Atvillage suffering through the same time Hatcher’sBlack Death. Hatcher is a historian specialising in the Middle Age thus is a dependable author.[1] His purpose is
    ...
    entertain the reader,reader as well as inform them, following the life of Master John, the parish
    ...
    of the villagers,villagers and allowing us
    ...
    sympathise with all of them. Hatcher is a university professor whose field includes the history of England from the middle ages, therefore he is a trustworthy author with a reputable background.[1]characters. However, the
    Source: Kelly, John. The great mortality. London: Harper Perennial, 2006
    ...
    great success[3]. His aimThe purpose of the book is to
    ...
    scenes of death .death. Whenever the
    ...
    Great Mortality for this particular study is that by attempting
    ...
    unable to sufficiently explore the
    Investigation
    The Black Death was devastating for Europe. Common estimates are that a third of the population was wiped out[5]. The experience of living through such a turbulent time along with the reduction in population greatly changed society. Hatcher presents the events in a part novel, part factual book. This essay will scrutinise his facts to check if he keeps to the truth by looking at the changes in religion, which in turn affected the economy and then leads to a consideration of the impact on society.
    ...
    to a woman’.[8]woman’,[8] yet after the plague Hatcher portrays a character undergo ‘a state of religious ecstasy’, implying that religion still had power. It is
    ...
    right in this regardmany regards as Catholicism
    ...
    of betrayal. PolackThe Middle Ages Unlocked is a historianintended to inform the audience about Medieval life and writer who has a MA in Medieval Studies[11] whilst Kania is an archaeologist[12], therefore their books are a reliable source of information. Whatreputable historians as authors so can be trusted. However, Hatcher did not mention was thatwrong to show religious tendencies which imply the plague killed many ofChurch still had a strong hold over the able priests that did try and perform their duties, so the Churchpeople, whereas it ‘found itself
    ...
    experienced members dead’[13], instead implying that the Church still had its power by portrayingdead’.[11] Ziegler’s article is a character undergo ‘a state of religious ecstasy’[14] aftervaluable source as it was published in the plague. Ziegler isHistory Today magazine and has an authorobjective purpose to inform the reader of multiple historical books and therefore can be relied upon to give accurate information.the Black Death’s course.
    According to
    ...
    hierarchy meant the peasants were
    ...
    depended on it’.[15] Competitions for jobs meant ‘those who offered themselves for hire…suffered reduced earnings’.[16] This left many villagers in poverty especially asit’[12] and then the harvest ‘of 1346 was exceptionally poor’.[17] The arrival of
    ...
    rapidly because… his full-time and
    ...
    or were ill’[18]ill’[13] but soon afterafter, villagers got
    ...
    collect the harvest.[19]harvest.[14] Again, Hatcher’s views mostly match what
    ...
    an overpopulated Europe’.[20]Europe’.[15] However, Goldsmith states that in France, the plague stopped a time of progress.[16] Bowsky was an author who focused mainly on medieval history[21] so his book wouldand Goldsmith have been researched carefully. The stark differencereasonable views as Goldsmith’s study is France which is different from Bowsky’s general point about Europe, and both books aim to analyse living conditions, leaving them dependable sources. Two main problems occurred for the lords after the plague consisted of two main problems,plague, ‘As manpower
    ...
    farm animals plummeted’.[22] Animal prices plummeted because onceplummeted’.[17] Once a tenant
    ...
    sell them, bringingreducing all prices down. Hatcher didn’t, however, exploreanimal prices. Nevertheless, according to the wayEconomist the Statutecosts of Labourers leadliving increased as well because there weren’t enough labourers to the Peasant’s Revolt.harvest leading to inflated prices of wheat.[18] This new law forbid peopleevidence coming from demanding higher wages than beforea reliable and neutral source contradicts Hatcher’s point of an economic boost for peasants although it later ties into the plague which angered many peasants and wasstory from 1368-71 where a key factorbumper harvest created a reduction in their decision to revolt in 1381.[23] The source should be taken with slight caution as Kelly hasn’t released much information so we do not know enough about him to judge how trustworthy he is.grain prices.
    Hatcher then
    ...
    in the next’.[24]next’.[19] Yet for
    ...
    types: ‘the pious and the petrified’[25]pious’[20] and ‘reckless folk who felt …they might as well livewho…live for the present’.[26]present’.[21] Either way,
    ...
    People became lazier, ‘taking casual work aswarier and when it suited them’[27] and couples ‘cohabiting…illicitly’.[28] Theif any outsider were to have been to an infected area, they ‘shouted at him to leave Walsham immediately’[22] According to historical records, the fear of
    ...
    people differently. According to Boccaccio claimed ‘Some thought
    ...
    prevent the plague’[29]plague’[23] but the
    ...
    killed indiscriminately. Boccaccio was an Italian author who witnessedBoccaccio’s The Decameron provides details of the plague and provided primary information. One effect brought about byfrom the Black Deathtime which was not mentioned by Hatcher was the impactmakes it had on Jews. Discriminated against prior toextremely valuable but has limitations since it is a multitude of different stories and is used mainly as literature instead of a historical document.[24] The first recorded uses of quarantine also came at the plague, ‘Many Christians believed thattime of the Jews brought onplague. People were afraid of the Black Deathdisease spreading and only knew this method of protecting themselves since their doctors ‘seemed helpless in curing the disease’.[25] Hatcher could be accused of being negligent by poisoning suppliesnot including the medical perspective of drinking water’ leadingthe plague but the limitation of trying to many Jews leaving for Poland.[30] Gottfried isfollow a university professor so would not display false information in his books.
    In
    story only allowed him to do this briefly.
    In
    conclusion, it
    ...
    lives of villagers.villagers which Hatcher included scenes of normal village life to increase
    Reflection
    ...
    small area would limitlimits what the author couldcan say, and one village maydoes not always prove what happens in the majority.general events. This approach
    ...
    numbers. However, focusingas EH Carr wrote deciding which facts become ‘historical fact’ can change the whole perspective of the era, so intently on a particular period duringHatcher’s method would accentuate the Middle Ages means there is a limited numberimportance of sources to use so Hatchercertain moments which may not always have been using the most reliable sources to base his book on, simply because there were not enough sources to choose from. case at the time.
    A second issue within this investigation was whether history should be used purely to teach or to entertain as well. Instead of taking the more traditional route and giving the facts to the reader, telling a story allowed Hatcher to entertain, attracting those who want to learn about the Black Death and enjoy the experience. Entertainment and knowledge don’t have to be sacrificed if the other is being used, for example when Master John talked to Richard about a cure, Richard told him the then common theory of the plague passing by exhalation. Along with facts, the reader can feel John’s desperation for a cure. Some may question Hatcher using his imagination to fill in the gaps but in the end he gave the facts we know and portrayed it in the way he felt would be most effective.
    ...
    in using them.[31]them.[26] On the
    Bibliography
    Association, The Jnt. Professor John Hatcher - Faculty of History. n.d. 27 September 2016. <http://www.hist.cam.ac.uk/directory/mjh1001@cam.ac.uk>.
    Boccaccio, Giovanni.Giovannie and et al. The Decameron. Trans. Guido Waldman. Oxford University
    Bowsky, William M. The Black Death: A Turning Point in History? Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.
    Findlen, Paula and Duane J. Osheim. William Marvin Bowsky. 2013. 21 SeptemberGoldsmith, James. L. THE CRISIS OF THE LATE MIDDLE AGES: THE CASE OF FRANCE. n.d. 5 October 2016. <https://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-on-history/november-2013/in-memoriam-william-marvin-bowsky>.
    Gottfried, Robert S. Black Death. Simon and Schuester, 2010.
    <http://fh.oxfordjournals.org/content/9/4/417.extract>.
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    W., C. Plagued by Dear Labour. 21 October 2013. 5 October 2016. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2013/10/economic-history-1>.

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    [2] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. The intimate Story of a Village in Crisis, 1345-1350, Phoenix, 2009, pp. 170
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    2:16 am
  4. page test edited International School Of Toulouse How useful What are the paintings strengths and limitation…

    International School Of Toulouse
    How useful
    What are the paintingsstrengths and limitations of JMW Turner for a historical understandingJohn Hatcher’s “A Village in Crisis” to the historian seeking to understand the impact of the Black Death on England?
    Table
    of Victorian attitudes towards steam power?
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=277&h=206} {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=277&h=206}
    [1] [2]
    Contents
    Contents:
    Identification and Evaluationevaluation of sources. 1
    Investigation.
    sources: .…………………………………………. p. 2
    Conclusion. 7
    Reflection. 8
    Bibliography. 9
    Appendix B. 13
    Appendix C. 14

    Investigation: .………………………………………………………………………... p. 3
    Reflection: .…………………………………………………………………………… p. 6

    Name: Anita LargeZoremsanga Hualngo
    Candidate Number:
    WordTotal Word Count: 2203 words2195
    Identification and Evaluation of sources
    The question that this study
    Sources:
    This investigation
    will be answering is “How useful are the paintings of JMW Turner for a historical understanding of Victorian attitudes towards steam power?” with particular focus on two of his paintings: The Fighting Temeraire (1838), and Rain, Steamthe strengths and Speed (1844).
    The paintings will be investigated in depth though a variety
    limitations of sources, which include Angel inJohn Hatchers “The Black Death” to historians seeking to understand the Sun[3], which offered insight on Turner’s landscapes, Industrial Revolution – Classesimpact of People[4], which provided detail on the impactBlack Death on England. To keep this essay in focus of the Industrial Revolutionmain question, I will focus on the religious, economic and social classes,impacts of the Black Death and HMS Indestructible: Unlocking the bloody history ofstudy will be conducted on the ship made famoustime period 1345-1351.
    The first source that will be considered for detailed use is The Black Death
    by Turner,John Hatcher, the Fighting Temeraire**[5]**, useful for understandingfocus point of the reason why Turner romanticizedinvestigation. The book focuses on a village affected by the Fighting Temeraireplague and its relation withso is half a novel as well as informing the public.
    Source A:
    reader. The Geniusother source is The Great Mortality by John Kelly which describes the progress of Turner: Painting the Industrial Revolution (2013)//**[6]**//
    The source originates from BBC Two,
    Black Death throughout Europe.
    Source: Hatcher, John. The Black Death. The intimate Story of
    a publicly funded body whose mission and values read “we are independent, impartial and honest”[7], whichVillage in Crisis, 1345-1350, Phoenix, 2009
    The Black Death by John Hatcher
    is knownuseful for its rangeanalysing the Black Death at a focused level since it recounts the story of documentaries targetinga single village. At the arts, culture and drama. Itssame time Hatcher’s purpose is to provide entertainment and information about an artistentertain the reader, following the life of Master John, the parish priest along with those of the villagers, allowing us to a public who may not be familiarsympathise with him or his art work, andall of them. Hatcher is therefore valuable because it provides detail about Turner’s past and his usea university professor whose field includes the history of scientific developments atEngland from the time to further his paintings.
    Nevertheless,
    middle ages, therefore he is a trustworthy author with a reputable background.[1] However, the sourcelimitation is limited in that it is directedHatcher created characters to a general publicsuit the story and has to fill in the gaps between sources to narrate coherently. He has also had to dramatize certain events to stay with his style of story-telling, for entertainment, so it will haveexample ‘Agnes…begged them to go to the church and fetch a sensationalist pointpriest’[2].
    Source: Kelly, John. The great mortality. London: Harper Perennial, 2006
    John Kelly’s The Great Mortality gives us an overview
    of viewthe Black Death and its effects. Although a medical scientist, Kelly’s book went on his personal life. As well as this, seeing as it presents Turner’s work into become a positive present-day light, it doesn’t showgreat success[3]. His aim is to follow the controversies of his work viewed by criticsspread of the time.
    Source B: The Utopian
    plague and then narrate events to help visualise the speed and Dystopian Visionsterror of the Industrial Revolution in the artplague: ‘the fate of Constable and Turner (2011)//**[8]**//
    This article
    the pestilential Genoese, who fled Caffa’.[4] The reader is frominformed of the situation as a blog,whole, the purposedetails helping us visualise the scenes of which isdeath . Whenever the plague moved on to informa major location Kelly gives us a quick background of the area and sharethen contrasts it to the author’s own knowledgeravages of the subject. Itdisease. However, the limitation of The Great Mortality for this particular study is valuable as it shares specific information about steam power and Turner.
    However,
    that by attempting to cover the source does have limitations in thatprogress of the plague throughout Europe, Kelly was unable to sufficiently explore the effect it may not be thoroughly objective as Thomas caters to her inherent partiality and opinions. As well as this, Thomas doesn’t state her formal qualifications, if any, and therefore lacks formal authorityhad on the subject. people’s mind-sets.
    Investigation
    Turner isThe Black Death was devastating for Europe. Common estimates are that a popular[9] British artist, regarded by some as the best Romantic painter[10]. He used oil paint and watercolours to create landscapes, his inspirationthird of Claude Lorrain[11] manipulated to capture the technological developments of the Industrial Revolution.population was wiped out[5]. The question “How useful are the paintingsexperience of JMW Turner forliving through such a historical understanding of Victorian attitudes towards steam power?” is important because it highlightsturbulent time along with the impact of the industrial revolutionreduction in general as well aspopulation greatly changed society. Hatcher presents the wayevents in which Turner felt about the change.
    This
    a part novel, part factual book. This essay will be structured into two broad sections, one for Fighting Temeraire and the other for Rain, Steam, and Speed. Within each, historical context and Turner’s attitudescrutinise his facts to check if he keeps to the painting will be considered. The conclusion will covertruth by looking at the waychanges in religion, which conflicting Victorian attitudes are reflected within Turner’s work.
    Figure 1. The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up (1838) is perhaps Turner’s most well-known painting, representing
    in turn affected the change from saileconomy and then leads to steam. There is a senseconsideration of the excitement forimpact on society.
    Hatcher claims that
    the sturdy, shiny little tugboat, headed towards a bright sunset, symbolicpower of the closing of an era and the start of a new, exciting one[12]. This point of viewChurch was shared by traders: “withimmense in Medieval Europe, until the export trade dominating markets, and trade routes expanding, shipping became important… and was closely linked toBlack Death shook the progressfoundations of belief. The Church kept the industrial revolution.”[13] Trading via sea had become incredibly profitable[14], bringing “employmentpeople obedient and humble by ‘chanting prayers and substantial wealth to the coastal towns”[15], due to developmentspsalms’[6] and reminding peasants they would be ‘damned in steam engines which allowed “faster and more efficient”[16] sea travel. Migration to America from Britain became more popular with the introductionhell’[7] if they didn’t repent, while news of the SS Great Britain, Brunel’s inventionBlack Death only increased their fear and onedevotion of the most revolutionary passenger shipsGod in the world[17]. For many Victorians, the colours and atmospherehopes that He would save them. However, the painting evoke were symbolic of the chance at a new life[18]Church’s power began waning as bishops began ‘proclaiming that steam engines allowed them.
    However, the painting can
    confession might be interpreted negatively: the Fighting Temeraire,made to a well-known ship, having contributedlay person, even to Nelson’s victorya woman’.[8] It is safe to say that Hatcher was right in Trafalgar[19], is a ghost, floating pale and washed out behind the dark , squat figure of the steam-powered tugboat, which Thackeray describedthis regard as Catholicism was a “little demon of a steamer is belching out a volume… of foul, lurid, red-hot malignant smoke,”[20].forced religion on English people. It is importantnot difficult to note thatunderstand why people began losing their faith in God even though there was a ‘42 to 45 percent mortality rate among English parish priests’ as many important figures of Victorian society believed thatclerics were unwilling to do their duty and some even fled from the Industrial Revolution would meanscene.[9] Pairing this along with the end of their national character[21], such“tithes as the Luddites, who were famedwell as profits from offerings, donations…payment for their vitriolic resistance to technological improvements[22],services, and Fighting Temeraire was “misinterpreted as an eminently Victorian painting”[23]. This aversionso on”[10] only led to the advancementsfeelings of technology, which they deemed as doomed from onset, was justified: Brunel’s Great Easternbetrayal. Polack is a historian and writer who has a MA in Medieval Studies[11] whilst Kania is an examplearchaeologist[12], therefore their books are a reliable source of ambition pushing Victorian technology too far: “Nearly three month’s costly struggle to get her afloat, and more problems while sheinformation. What Hatcher did not mention was completing, left her original company bankrupt.”[24] Her maiden voyage ended with a boiler explosion, killing five and injuring countless others[25]. With news such as this about modern technology, it is no wonder that Ruskin interpreted Fighting Temeraire as “an allegorythe plague killed many of nasty, dirty, industrial modernity overwhelming a more beautifulthe able priests that did try and romantic past”[26].
    Figure 2. Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway (1844) is one
    perform their duties, so the Church ‘found itself with many of Turner’sits most striking paintings,experienced members dead’[13], instead implying that the Church still had its focus beingpower by portraying a character undergo ‘a state of religious ecstasy’[14] after the steam-train speeding through the centreplague. Ziegler is an author of the painting, straight into the future[27]. A haremultiple historical books and therefore can be seen runningrelied upon to give accurate information.
    According to Hatcher, changes
    in frontthe political and religious hierarchy meant the peasants were given better wages and working conditions. At the beginning of his book, Hatcher writes ‘the overcrowded land struggled each year to feed all the train: interpretedmouths that depended on it’.[15] Competitions for jobs meant ‘those who offered themselves for hire…suffered reduced earnings’.[16] This left many villagers in poverty especially as a poetic image of the authoritiesharvest ‘of 1346 was exceptionally poor’.[17] The arrival of speed racing each other, or an ironic reminder of how slowly the trains really ran[28]. Although railwaysplague changed everything. Initially, ‘the best-run farms…was deteriorating rapidly because… his full-time and part-time farm servants had died or were met with enthusiasm, not all of them were successful:ill’[18] but soon after villagers got ‘twice the most notable example being Brunel’s Thames Tunnel, which flooded a worrying five times, killing six innormal daily pay’ as lords attempted to collect the worst flood[29],harvest.[19] Again, Hatcher’s views match what other sources have to say. Just before the Black Death living conditions were worsening and about which American traveller William Drew later commented “IBowsky argues that the Black Death was somewhat disappointed”[30].
    Turner’s ambivalence
    ‘a necessary…corrective to an overpopulated Europe’.[20] Bowsky was an author who focused mainly on medieval history[21] so his book would have been researched carefully. The stark difference for trains in the painting is mirrored bylords after the historical contextplague consisted of two main problems, ‘As manpower shortages developed, labor costs exploded while the time. On one hand, steam-trains were a new development[31], surrounded by manic enthusiasm as the period of “Railway Mania” attests: “the prices of railway shares doubled… then fell dramatically”[32] asfarm animals plummeted’.[22] Animal prices plummeted because once a tenant died, they would give up their best animal to their lord, but with so many tenants dead, the newly created middle class sunklords had to try and sell them, bringing all their savings into the railway. Steam trains changedprices down. Hatcher didn’t, however, explore the way in whichthe Statute of Labourers lead to the Peasant’s Revolt. This new law forbid people travelledfrom demanding higher wages than before the plague which angered many peasants and traded[33]: “making England less dependent on… Europe aswas a whole.”[34]key factor in their decision to revolt in 1381.[23] The painting highlights Turner’s respect,source should be taken with slight caution as a “habitualKelly hasn’t released much information so we do not know enough about him to judge how trustworthy he is.
    Hatcher then implies that these economic changes disrupted traditional social values. Due to the reputation of the Church, medieval society was very fearful of God
    and dedicated traveller”[35],‘The folk of Walsham did not lack for reminders of how their actions in this world would determine their life in the steam-train, the painting paying homage to Brunel, who engineerednext’.[24] Yet for some the GWR, or “God’s Wonderful Railway”[36], a great success which allowedBlack Death outweighed this fear and people who “only ever went about 10 miles from their homes,”[37], to make trips all around England.
    The painting can also
    could be used to understand underlying tensions created byseparated into two distinct types: ‘the pious and the revolutionary changes:petrified’[25] and ‘reckless folk who felt …they might as well live for the train’s open furnace, glowing ominously red is a reminder ofpresent’.[26] Either way, the fearsplague killed from each group and reservations that were held by Victorians. Figures suchthe outcome was a change in life which went against religious teachings. People became lazier, ‘taking casual work as the Dukeand when it suited them’[27] and couples ‘cohabiting…illicitly’.[28] The fear of Wellington condemned the railways, warningplague did affect people differently. According to Boccaccio ‘Some thought that by living quietly they “would encouragecould avoid the lower classes to move about”[38]. The precarious transitional period that Britaindanger. Other believed that…free living was undergoing isthe best highlighted by one key contradiction ofway to prevent the painting: a farmer works his field with a traditional plough, overshadowed byplague’[29] but the steam-train speeding past. This brings attention toplague killed indiscriminately. Boccaccio was an Italian author who witnessed the tension between agricultureplague and industry, exemplified bestprovided primary information. One effect brought about by the Swing Riots,Black Death which were “the first large-scale demonstration of agricultural labourer’s strength”[39], and focused mainlywas not mentioned by Hatcher was the impact it had on breaking machinery, setting firesJews. Discriminated against prior to the hay bales, and protesting inplague, ‘Many Christians believed that the streets against their replacementJews brought on the Black Death by machines.
    Conclusion
    poisoning supplies of drinking water’ leading to many Jews leaving for Poland.[30] Gottfried is a university professor so would not display false information in his books.
    In conclusion, Turner’s paintings are very useful for a historical understandingit could be argued that Hatcher’s method of informing the preoccupations of mid-Victorian British societyreader about the Black Death was ineffective because they provide context andhe had to create a plethoragripping story as well as give the facts of opinions from the timesituation. Still, for those new to reflect on. In the early 19th century critics were scathing and criticised Turner’s “dynamic compositions”[40]. However, his popularity grew when he was cited by John Ruskin as “superiorsubject, a gripping story with facts would leave its mark. For historians trying to all previous landscape painters”[41], and continued to grow when critics like Thackeray gushed about Fighting Temeraire: “From some such thrillget a worm’s eye view of excitement as makes us glow and rejoice over Mr. Turner and his Fighting Temeraire…”[42]
    It is interesting to note Turner’s own ambivalence within the paintings. Fighting Temeraire
    living in particular can be interpreted as both positive and negative, which reflects the fact that although many Victorians viewedBlack Death, the Industrial Revolution with excitement and anticipation,book also provides this opportunity because it wouldn’t necessarily have been beneficialis about the daily lives of villagers. Hatcher included scenes of normal village life to them. The reality was that breakthroughs in technology polarised society: manyincrease the authentic feeling of the middle and lower class Victorians “were replaced in factories by machines… worked for relatively low wages… The women and children were not paid as much as men were...” [43] The conditions for the lower class Victorians were dismal, and Turner having risen rapidly in society fromit being a relatively poor background provides a particularly broad viewpoint of the industrial revolution by crossing these societal borders.medieval village.
    Reflection
    OneAn issue raised duringby this investigation was that of limiting myselfis the challenge undertaken by the author to studyingdescribe just two paintingsone village in depth, although many of Turner’s other paintingsgreat detail. Focusing in on such a small area would limit what the author could say, and one village may not always prove what happens in the majority. This approach gives the reader a way to empathise with the characters in The Black Death than they would with numbers. However, focusing so intently on a particular period during the Middle Ages means there is a limited number of sources to use so Hatcher may not always have been interestingusing the most reliable sources to include. Limiting myself meant that a lot of extra informationbase his book on, simply because there were not enough sources to choose from.
    A second issue within this investigation
    was cut outwhether history should be used purely to teach or to entertain as well. Instead of taking the investigation, althoughmore traditional route and giving the cutting downfacts to the reader, telling a story allowed Hatcher to entertain, attracting those who want to learn about the Black Death and enjoy the experience. Entertainment and knowledge don’t have to be sacrificed if the other is being used, for example when Master John talked to Richard about a cure, Richard told him the then common theory of primary material enabled methe plague passing by exhalation. Along with facts, the reader can feel John’s desperation for a cure. Some may question Hatcher using his imagination to focusfill in the pointsgaps but in the end he gave the facts we know and portrayed it in the way he felt would be most effective.
    The final issue
    that I was making concisely, learning that history offers an overwhelming number of potentialcame from this essay is deciding which sources are trustworthy. Hatcher relied mostly on records taken in manor meetings and itsince there was no purpose to them other than to record facts, he was safe in using them.[31] On the internet though, anybody posts whatever they want. One way of checking is necessaryseeing what the site has to picklose if they are caught lying and choose.
    Another issue manifested during
    the studysecond is to see whether the author is a certified person who is obliged to tell the truth. There was also the realisation that of focusing only on one artist’s work to ascertain social attitudes. During this investigation, I focused only on Turner’s mindset, buthistorians studying different time periods encountered different problems. When studying a more thorough understanding would have focusedMedieval period historians do not onlyhave many sources to use and have to rely on Turner’s view,imagination until something new is found in the future, but other artists’when studying a modern period, the number of that period from different social backgrounds. Currently, although Turner’s artsources can be interpreted generally, it is more focused on Turner’s own ideas ofoverwhelming and the industrial revolution,task becomes to decide which were influenced by his upbringing and social background.are worthwhile.
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    September 2016].
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    Available at: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/artists/joseph-mallord-william-turner
    [Accessed 12 July 2016].
    Robin Blackburn, 2011. Enslavement and Industrialisation. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/industrialisation_article_01.shtml
    [Accessed 8 October 2016].
    Shane Winser, 2011. The 'Great' Eastern. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/seven_wonders_gallery_07.shtml
    [Accessed 6 October 2016].
    Steve Sohcot,
    2016. Industrial Revolution - Classes of People. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.industrialrevolutionresearch.com/industrial_revolution_classes_of_people.php
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    The Genius of Turner: Painting the Industrial Revolution. 2013. [Film] Directed
    <http://us.macmillan.com/author/johnkelly>.
    Snell, Melissa. 'The Black Death: A Personal History'
    by Clare Beavan. s.l.: s.n.
    Thomas Lane, 2004. What Brunel did for us. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.building.co.uk/what-brunel-did-for-us/306365.article
    [Accessed 4 October 2016].
    Unknown, 2014. Rain, Steam and Speed - Turner. [Online]
    Available at: http://rainsteamandspeedturner.blogspot.fr/
    [Accessed 14
    John Hatcher. 22 July 2016].
    Wallpaper, A., 2013. Art Wallpaper. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.artwallpaper.eu/Paintings/archives/8031/joseph-mallord-william-turner-paintings-life-boat-and-manby-apparatus-going-off-to-a-stranded-vessel-making-signal-of-distress-1831
    [Accessed 9
    2015. 21 September 2016].
    WikiArt, 2015. Rain, Steam and Speed:
    2016. <http://historymedren.about.com/od/theblackdeath/fr/hatcher.htm>.
    Ziegler, Philip.
    The Great Western Railway. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/rain-steam-and-speed-the-great-western-railway
    [Accessed 5
    Black Death, Part II. n.d. 21 September 2016].
    WikiArt, 2015.
    2016. <http://www.historytoday.com/philip-ziegler/black-death-part-ii>.
    [1] Association,
    The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/the-fighting-temeraire-tugged-to-her-last-berth-to-be-broken-up
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    William Allen Drew, 2010. Glimpses and Gatherings, During a Voyage and Visit to London. In: Glimpses and Gatherings, During a Voyage and Visit to London. s.l.:Nabu press, p. 234.
    Willis, S., 2010. HMS Indestructible: Unlocking the bloody history
    Jnt. Professor John Hatcher — Faculty of the ship made famous by Turner, the Fighting Temeraire. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1245180/HMS-Invincible-Inside-battle-ship-famous-Turner-fighting-Temeraire.html
    [Accessed 13 July 2016].
    Appendix A__
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=601&h=446}
    Figure 1 The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up
    (Ivan Ischenko, The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up (Available
    History. Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/the-fighting-temeraire-tugged-to-her-last-berth-to-be-broken-up,http://www.hist.cam.ac.uk/directory/mjh1001@cam.ac.uk, Last accessed 5th27th September 2016)
    Appendix B
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=601&h=447}
    Figure 2 Rain, Steam and Speed:
    2016
    [2] Hatcher, John.
    The Great Western Railway
    (Wikiart, Rain, Steam and Speed:
    Black Death. The Great Western Railway (Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/rain-steam-and-speed-the-great-western-railway, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    Appendix C
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=602&h=446}
    Figure 3 Lifeboat and Manby apparatus going off to
    intimate Story of a stranded vessel making signal of distress
    (Available
    Village in Crisis, 1345-1350, Phoenix, 2009, pp. 170
    [3] Services, Dnsmaster It. John Kelly | Authors | Macmillan. Available
    at: http://www.artwallpaper.eu/Paintings/archives/8031/joseph-mallord-william-turner-paintings-life-boat-and-manby-apparatus-going-off-to-a-stranded-vessel-making-signal-of-distress-1831,http://us.macmillan.com/author/johnkelly, Last accessed 9th27th September 2016)
    [1] Figure 1.
    2016
    [4] Kelly, John.
    The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up
    [2] Figure 2. Rain, Steam
    great mortality. London: Harper Perennial, 2006, pp. 80
    [5] Meade, Melinda S.,
    and Speed: The Great Western Railway
    [3] Gerard Finley, Angel in the Sun: Turner’s Vision of History [page 139], (Available at: https://books.google.fr/books?id=uxroHjm2QAIC&pg=PA139&lpg=PA138&focus=viewport&dq=%22Rain,+Steam+and+Speed+-+The+Great+Western+Railway%22&hl=fr&output=html, Last accessed 14th July 2016)
    [4] Steve Sohcot, Industrial Revolution – Classes of People (Available at: http://www.industrialrevolutionresearch.com/industrial_revolution_classes_of_people.php, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    [5] Sam Willis, HMS Indestructible: Unlocking the bloody history of the ship made famous by Turner, the Fighting Temeraire, (Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1245180/HMS-Invincible-Inside-battle-ship-famous-Turner-fighting-Temeraire.html, Last accessed 13th July 2016)
    Michael Emch. Medical Geography. 3rd ed., Guilford Press, 2010.
    [6] Clare Beavan,Hatcher, John. The Genius of Turner: Painting the Industrial Revolution [documentary], (Last accessed 20th July 2016)Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 72
    [7] British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, MissionHatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 106
    [8] Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 126
    [9] Kelly, John. The Great Mortality. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2005, pp. 224
    [10] Polack, Gillian,
    and values – Inside the BBC (Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/aboutthebbc/insidethebbc/whoweare/mission_and_values, Last accessed: 5th September 2016)
    [8] Janet Thomas,
    Katrin Kania. The utopian and dystopian visions of the Industrial RevolutionMiddle Ages Unlocked: A Guide to Life in the art of Constable and TurnerMedieval England, 1050-1300. Amberley, 2015.
    [11] Private Registrant, About me » Gillian Polack
    (Available at: https://janetthomas.wordpress.com/2011/11/18/the-utopian-and-dystopian-visions-of-the-industrial-revolution-in-the-art-of-constable-and-turner/,http://www.gillianpolack.com/about-me/, Last accessed 5th21st September 2016)
    [9] Charlotte Higgins, A home-grown victory as Turner tops poll for best painting, (Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/sep/06/media.bbc, Last accessed 11th July 2016)
    [10] The National Gallery, Joseph Mallord William Turner, (Available at: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/artists/joseph-mallord-william-turner, Last accessed 12th July 2016)
    [11] Clare Beavan, op. cit.

    [12] Artble, The Fighting Temeraire,Katrin Kania, Untitled Page (Available at: http://www.artble.com/artists/joseph_mallord_william_turner/paintings/the_fighting_temeraire,http://www.pallia.net/en/, Last accessed 14th July1st October 2016)
    [13] Catherine Eagleton,Ziegler, Philip. The Industrial Revolution and the changing face of Britain,Black Death, Part II | History Today (Available at: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publications/online_research_catalogues/paper_money/paper_money_of_england__wales/the_industrial_revolution/the_industrial_revolution_2.aspx,http://www.historytoday.com/philip-ziegler/black-death-part-ii, Last accessed 8th October21st September 2016)
    [14] Robin Blackburn, Enslavement and Industrialisation, (Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/industrialisation_article_01.shtml, Last accessed 8th October 2016)Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 314
    [15] Catherine Eagleton, op. cit.Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 43
    [16] Ibid.Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 43
    [17] Brunel’s Great Britain,Hatcher, John. The Story (SS Great Britain), (Available at: http://www.ssgreatbritain.org/story, Last accessed 8th October 2016)Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 43
    [18] Linda Alchin, English Immigration to America, (Available at: http://www.emmigration.info/english-immigration-to-america.htm, Last accessed 9th October 2016)Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 202
    [19] Sam Willis, op. citHatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 214
    [20] Andrew Graham-Dixon,Bowsky, William M. The heartfelt tug of time, (Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/the-heartfelt-tug-of-time-1593109.html, Last accessed 4th October 2016)Black Death: A Turning Point in History? Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971.
    [21] Clare Beavan. op. cit.
    [22] Andrew Howson, Luddite Bicentary
    Findlen, Paula and Duane J. Osheim. William Marvin Bowsky (1930-2013) (Available at: http://ludditebicentenary.blogspot.fr/p/events.html,https://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-on-history/november-2013/in-memoriam-william-marvin-bowsky, Last accessed 5th21st September 2016)
    [23] Andrew Graham-Dixon, op. cit.

    [22] Kelly, John. The Great Mortality. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2005, pp. 205
    [23] Kelly, Nigel. The Medieval Realms. Heinemann, 1991.

    [24] IKBrunel, SS Great Eastern, (Available at: http://www.ikbrunel.org.uk/ss-great-eastern, Last accessed 6th October 2016)Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 38
    [25] Ibid.Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 70
    [26] Andrew Graham-Dixon, op. cit.Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 153
    [27] Gerard Finley, op. cit.Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 249
    [28] Unknown, Rain, Steam, and Speed – Turner, (Available at: http://rainsteamandspeedturner.blogspot.fr/, Last accessed 14th July 2016)Hatcher, John. The Black Death. Phoenix, 2009, pp. 251
    [29] Brunel Museum,Giovanni Boccaccio, et al. The Thames Tunnel, (Available at: http://www.brunel-museum.org.uk/history/the-thames-tunnel/, Last accessed 4th October 2016)Decameron. Oxford University Press, 1998
    [30] William Allen Drew, GlimpsesGottfried, Robert S. Black Death. Simon and Gatherings, During a Voyage and Visit to London (Nabu Press, 2010)Schuester, 2010.
    [31] Bob Barton, The history of steam trains and railways in Britain [p. 234]Snell, Melissa. 'The Black Death: A Personal History' by John Hatcher (Available at: http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofBritain/Steam-trains-railways/,http://historymedren.about.com/od/theblackdeath/fr/hatcher.htm, Last accessed 5th21st September 2016)
    [32] Gareth Campbell, Railway Mania of the 1840’s (Available at: http://www.railwaymania.co.uk/, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    [33] Marjorie Bloy, The Effects of Railways (Available at: http://www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/railways/effects.htm, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    [34] Evan Davis, Jackson Collins, The Impact and Effect of the Steam Locomotive, (Available at: http://www.railroadandsteamengine.weebly.com/impact.html, Last accessed 4th October 2016)
    [35] Unknown, Rain, Steam, and Speed – Turner, (Available at: http://rainsteamandspeedturner.blogspot.fr/, Last accessed 14th July 2016)
    [36] Guy Martin, How Britain Worked (Random House, 2012) [p. 25]
    [37] Thomas Lane, What Brunel did for us, (Available at: http://www.building.co.uk/what-brunel-did-for-us/306365.article, Last accessed 4th October 2016)
    [38] British National Party, Famous Britons : Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington (Available at: http://www.bnp.org.uk/news/national/famous-britons-arthur-wellesley-duke-wellington, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    [39] Marjie Bloy, Rural Unrest in the 1830’s : the “Swing” riots, (Available at: http://historyhome.co.uk/peel/ruralife/swing.htm, Last accessed 4th October 2016)
    [40] Artble, Joseph Mallord William Turner, (Available at: http://www.artble.com/artists/joseph_mallord_william_turner#critical_reception, Last accessed 14th July 2016)
    [41] Ibid.
    [42] George P. Landow, Thackeray on Turner’s “The Fighting Temeraire”, (Available at: http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/wmt/turner2.html, Last accessed 14th July 2016)
    [43] Steve Sohcot, op. cit.

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    2:16 am
  5. page test edited ... International School Of Toulouse How useful are the paintings of JMW Turner for a historical …
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    International School Of Toulouse
    How useful are the paintings of JMW Turner for a historical understanding of Victorian attitudes towards steam power?
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    [1] [2]

    Contents
    Identification and Evaluation of sources. 1
    Investigation. 32
    Conclusion. 67
    Reflection. 78
    Bibliography. 8
    Appendix A.. 10
    9
    Appendix B. 1113
    Appendix C. 1214
    Name: Anita Large
    Candidate Number:
    Word Count: 22002203 words
    Identification and Evaluation of sources
    The question that this study will be answering is “How useful are the paintings of JMW Turner for a historical understanding of Victorian attitudes towards steam power?” with particular focus on two of his paintings: The Fighting Temeraire (1838), and Rain, Steam and Speed (1844).
    The painting’s backgroundpaintings will be
    ...
    of sources, a full list of which can be found in the bibliography at the end of this study. One of the sources wasinclude Angel in the Sun by Gerald Finley[1], a bookSun[3], which offers interpretations ofoffered insight on Turner’s landscapes. Another relevant source waslandscapes, Industrial Revolution
    ...
    Classes of People by S. Sohcot[2],People[4], which provided
    ...
    Revolution on the social classes, which was useful for considering the reactions that would be had towards Turner’s paintings. Finally, the Daily Mail articleand HMS Indestructible:
    ...
    the Fighting Temeraire**[3]**, which wasTemeraire**[5]**, useful for understanding the relation between the public and the Fighting Temeraire: the reason
    ...
    Turner romanticized it in that way.the Fighting Temeraire and its relation with the public.
    Source A:
    ...
    Industrial Revolution (2013) **[4]**(2013)//**[6]**//
    The origin of this source isoriginates from BBC Two, a publicly funded body whose mission and values read “we are independent, impartial and honest”[7], which is
    ...
    and drama. We can deduce that itsIts purpose is
    ...
    his art work. On this basis, itwork, and is therefore valuable for this investigation because it
    ...
    about Turner’s past, his painting techniquespast and his
    ...
    his paintings. Additionally, BBC Two is a trustworthy publicly funded body, whose mission and values read “we are independent, impartial and honest”[5].
    Nevertheless, the source does have limitationsis limited in that as it is
    ...
    for entertainment, so it will have a more sensationalist aspectpoint of view on his personal life, as well as a focus on his early life which was not relevant to my investigation.life. As well
    ...
    as it is focused on presentingpresents Turner’s work
    ...
    a positive present-day light, it
    ...
    by critics atof the time: instead focusing on present-day perspective.time.
    Source B:
    ...
    and Turner (2011) **[6]**(2011)//**[8]**//
    This source originatesarticle is from a
    ...
    the subject. On this basis, itIt is valuable for this investigation as it shares not only specific and relevant information about
    ...
    power and Turner, but it also covers what Turner includes in his work and what he leaves out. Thomas is an “artist and philosopher”[7] which infers the technical knowledge of the art required.Turner.
    However, the
    ...
    and therefore she lacks formal
    Investigation
    ...
    is a popular[8]popular[9] British artist,
    ...
    best Romantic painter[9] of that period.painter[10]. He used
    ...
    landscapes, his early work inspired by thatinspiration of Claude Lorrain, a French painter known for his classical scenes of nature and nymphs. TurnerLorrain[11] manipulated this idea to paintcapture the Industrial Revolution, hence capturing the excitement and anticipation of change. Turner himself rose rapidly in society from a relatively poor background: by crossing these societal borders, he provides a particularly broad viewpointtechnological developments of the industrial revolution.
    The
    Industrial Revolution. The question “how“How useful are
    ...
    understanding of the preoccupations of a mid-Victorian British society?” (not even your original stated question – make it match the one you are actually studying!!)Victorian attitudes towards steam power?” is important
    ...
    industrial revolution on Victorian society, and the way in which painters portrayed the changes,general as well as limitations of source and the problems that arise these limitations. For example, it could be argued thatway in which Turner is a very good source of knowledge for historians, as he was living throughfelt about the period as he was painting it, but despite this, his position an Industrial Revolution enthusiast gives him an inherent bias.change.
    This essay
    ...
    one for each painting (paintings not actually specified – do so).Fighting Temeraire and the other for Rain, Steam, and Speed. Within each, the historical context
    ...
    Turner’s attitude into the painting will be considered, as well asconsidered. The conclusion will cover the way in which the painting helps modern historians in their understanding of mid-Victorian preoccupations in the conclusion.
    *These three paragraphs can be compressed into one shorter one if you need space
    The
    conflicting Victorian attitudes are reflected within Turner’s work.
    Figure 1. The
    Fighting Temeraire
    ...
    most well-known painting. By 1838, the Industrial Revolution was well underway, and Fighting Temeraire representspainting, representing the change
    ...
    sail to steam. There is a sense of the excitement for the sturdy, shiny little tugboat, headed towards a bright sunset, symbolic of the closing of an era and the start of a new, exciting one[12]. This point of view was shared by traders: “with the export trade dominating markets, and trade routes expanding, shipping became important… and was closely linked to the progress of the industrial revolution.”[13] Trading via sea had become incredibly profitable[14], bringing “employment and substantial wealth to the coastal towns”[15], due to developments in steam engines which allowed “faster and more efficient”[16] sea travel. Migration to America from Britain became more popular with the introduction of the SS Great Britain, Brunel’s invention and one of the most revolutionary passenger ships in the navy.world[17]. For many Victorians, the general public,colours and atmosphere that the painting evoke were symbolic of the chance at a new life[18] that steam engines allowed them.
    However, the painting can be interpreted negatively:
    the Fighting Temeraire wasTemeraire, a well-known
    ...
    victory in Trafalgar[10]: thereTrafalgar[19], is this sense of nostalgia in the painting, with the Fighting Temeraire being represented like a ghost,
    ...
    pale and almost washed out behind the small, soliddark , squat figure of the steam-powered iron tugboat. However, this painting can be interpreted as the loss of the Fighting Temerairetugboat, which Thackeray described as a natural process: an “elegy for the passing“little demon of sail”[11]. Fighting Temeraire also offers a contrast in the sounds of the boats. Surrounding the tugboat are the noise and movement of splashes of water and steam rising in clouds from the chimney, whereas surrounding the Fighting Temerairesteamer is an aura of dignified calm which adds to its ghost-like presence. You also getbelching out a very clear sensevolume… of Turner’s excitement for the sturdy little tugboat: painted in shiny black, headed towards a bright sunset: the closing of an era and the start of a new, exciting one[12].foul, lurid, red-hot malignant smoke,”[20]. It is
    ...
    their national character and that their morality was doomed[13],character[21], such as
    ...
    resistance to the industrial revolution[14]. They would therefore have seen this painting in a negative light. However, for Turnertechnological improvements[22], and many other Victorians, thisFighting Temeraire was not the case, and the colours and sounds that this painting evoke are a testament“misinterpreted as an eminently Victorian painting”[23]. This aversion to this. Nonetheless, artistic licence must not be forgotten: at that time, the Temeraire would have been little more than a floating hulk insteadadvancements of the delicate structure represented. VERY little actual history in this paragraph. I have provided detailed tips for your next paragraph but YOU need to be heavily responsible for working this one up. In particular, divide it into two sections: first, the ‘positive’ view of the painting (excitement about the new technology, BACKED UP WITH OTHER SOURCES/QUOTES which substantiate this – e.g. references to such thingsthey deemed as the SSdoomed from onset, was justified: Brunel’s Great BritainEastern is an example of ambition pushing Victorian technology too far: “Nearly three month’s costly struggle to get her afloat, and other naval developments; then a second paragraph outlining the negatives / fears etc, AGAIN backed upmore problems while she was completing, left her original company bankrupt.”[24] Her maiden voyage ended with HISTORICAL SOURCES – e.g. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/the-heartfelt-tug-of-time-1593109.html is a FANTASTIC article with quotes from Ruskin, Thackerayboiler explosion, killing five and injuring countless others[25]. With news such as this about the ‘negative’ view of the painting; you could say this presages the negatives of steam shipsmodern technology, it is no wonder that Ruskin interpreted Fighting Temeraire as later evinced by the disastrous final project“an allegory of Brunel (the Great Eastern – havenasty, dirty, industrial modernity overwhelming a detail or two)
    http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB123637988614357383
    Rain,
    more beautiful and romantic past”[26].
    Figure 2. Rain,
    Steam and
    ...
    most striking paintings. Itspaintings, its focus isbeing the steam-train speeding assertively through the
    ...
    the painting, seemingly straight at the viewer and into the future[15]. Around the train youfuture[27]. A hare can see a harebe seen running in
    ...
    of the fastest animal in England at the time running in frontauthorities of the new authority of speed,speed racing each other, or as an ironic
    ...
    trains really ran[16]. (this ‘ironic’ comment could be substantiated by the fact that the trainsran[28]. Although railways were met with enthusiasm, not always successful, e.g. look upall of them were successful: the most notable example being Brunel’s Thames Tunnel / pneumatic trains)
    This ambivalence about
    Tunnel, which flooded a worrying five times, killing six in the worst flood[29], and about which American traveller William Drew later commented “I was somewhat disappointed”[30].
    Turner’s ambivalence for
    trains in the painting is mirrored
    ...
    historical context in whichof the painting was produced.time. On the one hand,steam-trainshand, steam-trains were a new development[17] anddevelopment[31], surrounded by manic enthusiasm as the period of “Railway Mania”, during whichMania” attests: “the prices
    ...
    then fell dramatically”[18]dramatically”[32] as the
    ...
    the railway. The atmosphere around the steam-trains was one of manic excitement, as they would changeSteam trains changed the way
    ...
    travelled and traded intraded[33]: “making England less dependent on… Europe as a huge way (unsubstantiated assertion)[19].whole.”[34] The painting highlights this in the way that although you can sense Turner’s ,respect, as a
    ...
    and dedicated traveller”[20], respecttraveller”[35], for the steam-train. (mentionsteam-train, the Great Western Railway here, developed bypainting paying homage to Brunel, andwho engineered the GWR, or “God’s Wonderful Railway”[36], a great success – explain why of course)
    Nevertheless, the
    which allowed people who “only ever went about 10 miles from their homes,”[37], to make trips all around England.
    The
    painting can
    ...
    to understand the underlying tensions created by thesethe revolutionary changes…changes: the train’s open furnacefurnace, glowing ominously red in the rain remainsis a reminder
    ...
    held by Victorians of the time (these ‘fears and reservations’ are completely unstated within this study) – bring in Wellington here as per [[a source of contention: figuresVictorians. Figures such as
    ...
    Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley,Wellington condemned the
    ...
    to move about”[21]]].about”[38]. The precarious
    ...
    a traditional plough alongside aplough, overshadowed by the steam-train speeding through the rain (which is where you could have hinted atpast. This brings attention to the tension
    ...
    agriculture and industry e.g. rick burning,industry, exemplified best by the Swing Riots). There’s also a quote from Carlyle - http://rainsteamandspeedturner.blogspot.fr –Riots, which you still haven’t incorporatedwere “the first large-scale demonstration of agricultural labourer’s strength”[39], and focused mainly on breaking machinery, setting fires to the hay bales, and protesting in the streets against their replacement by machines.
    Conclusion

    In conclusion,
    ...
    of opinions from the time to reflect
    ...
    Turner’s “dynamic compositions”[22]. Hiscompositions”[40]. However, his popularity grew
    ...
    previous landscape painters”[23],painters”[41], and continued
    ...
    his Fighting Temeraire…”[24] However, Turner’s paintings are not technically reliable, due to artistic license. For this reason, although Turner’s paintings useful as emotional testimonies, they are not “fact”, and thisTemeraire…”[42]
    It
    is to be remembered when using them for historical understanding: this is especially true when you consider his painting Lifeboat and Manby apparatus going off to a stranded vessel making signal of distress (1831). Although Turner really witnessed a shipwreck and the use of the Manby apparatus, the scene is highly idealised and not a true representation of the shipwreck[25]. (elements from this paragraph would be better suited for the reflection section)
    It is also
    interesting to note Turner’s own ambivalence within the different interpretations ofpaintings. Fighting Temeraire in particular can be interpreted as both positive and negative, which reflects the paintings. Althoughfact that although many Victorians viewed the
    ...
    and anticipation, this doesn’tit wouldn’t necessarily mean that the Industrial Revolution would have been beneficial to them: thethem. The reality of the situation iswas that the breakthroughs in technology polarised society. “The middle and upper classes had better food and housing… their population grew and thus had minimal difficulty living duringsociety: many of the Industrial Revolution.”[26], which wasn’t the case for middle and lower class Victorians, “many [of which] wereVictorians “were replaced in
    ...
    by machines… Most workers worked for
    ...
    men were...” Overall, the[43] The conditions for
    ...
    dismal, and the paintings offer a chance to acknowledge this point of view, (even though Turner himself washaving risen rapidly in society from a lower class background). (although….to be consistent with the main bodyrelatively poor background provides a particularly broad viewpoint of this investigation, you REALLY need to close by making the point that the two Turner’s paintings you have considered DO reflect a certain ambivalence about the industrial revolution, even if they don’t cover the particular social divisions which you identify here) revolution by crossing these societal borders.
    Reflection
    ...
    issue raised relating to the methods used by historiansduring this investigation was that
    ...
    to include. Although limitingLimiting myself to sources meant that
    ...
    the investigation, although the cutting
    ...
    was making more concisely than if more paintings had been investigated. Through this challenge, I learntconcisely, learning that history
    ...
    potential sources for one subject, and that historians haveit is necessary to choose which ones will be most relevant the ideas that they want to present in priority, especially when taking into account a word limit.pick and choose.
    Another issue
    ...
    on Turner’s mindset regarding the industrial revolution,mindset, but in hindsight a more
    ...
    art can speak for general attitudes,be interpreted generally, it is
    ...
    social background. Thus, I learnt that the danger of narrowing the scope of an investigation is a less complete result.
    Bibliography
    Abram Fox, 2015. Turner, The Fighting Temeraire. [Online]
    Available at: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/becoming-modern/romanticism/england-constable-turner/a/turner-the-fighting-temeraire
    [Accessed 13 July 2016].
    Andrew Graham-Dixon, 1995. The heartfelt tug of time. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/the-heartfelt-tug-of-time-1593109.html
    [Accessed 4 October 2016].
    Andrew Howson, 2016. Luddite Bicentary - Events. [Online]
    Available at: http://ludditebicentenary.blogspot.fr/p/events.html
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].

    Artble, 1999. Joseph Mallord William Turner. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.artble.com/artists/joseph_mallord_william_turner
    [Accessed 14 July 2016].
    Barton, B.,Bob Barton, 2015. The
    Available at: : http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofBritain/Steam-trains-railways/
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Bloy, M., 2016. The EffectsBritish National Party, 2015. Famous Britons: Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Railways.Wellington. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/railways/effects.htmhttp://www.bnp.org.uk/news/national/famous-britons-arthur-wellesley-duke-wellington
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Campbell, G.,Brunel Museum, 2016. The Thames Tunnel. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.brunel-museum.org.uk/history/the-thames-tunnel/
    [Accessed 4 October 2016].
    Brunel's Great Britain, 2016. The Story (SS Great Britain). [Online]
    Available at: http://www.ssgreatbritain.org/story
    [Accessed 8 October 2016].
    Catherine Eagleton, 2010. The Industrial Revolution and the changing face of Britain. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publications/online_research_catalogues/paper_money/paper_money_of_englandwales/the_industrial_revolution/the_industrial_revolution_2.aspx
    [Accessed 8 October 2016].
    Charlotte Higgins, 2005. A home-grown victory as Turner tops poll for best painting. [Online]
    Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/sep/06/media.bbc
    David Taylor, 2016. The Origins of the Rock. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.bellrock.org.uk/lighthouse/lighthouse_rock.htm
    [Accessed 12 July 2016].
    Evan Davis & Jackson Collins, 2013. The Impact and Effect of the Steam Locomotive. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.railroadandsteamengine.weebly.com/impact.html
    [Accessed 4 October 2016].
    Gareth Campbell,
    2001. Railway
    Available at: http://www.railwaymania.co.uk/
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Finley, G., 1999. Angel in the Sun: Turner's Vision of History. In: Angel in the Sun: Turner's Vision of History. s.l.:McGill-Queen's Press, p. 139.
    Fox, A., 2015. Turner, The Fighting Temeraire. [Online]
    Available at: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/becoming-modern/romanticism/england-constable-turner/a/turner-the-fighting-temeraire
    [Accessed 13 July 2016].
    Gallery, N., n.d. Joseph Mallord William Turner. [Online]
    Available at: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/artists/joseph-mallord-william-turner
    [Accessed 12 July 2016].
    Higgins, C., 2005. A home-grown victory as Turner tops poll for best painting. [Online]
    Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/sep/06/media.bbc
    Howson, A., 2016. Luddite Bicentary - Events. [Online]
    Available at: http://ludditebicentenary.blogspot.fr/p/events.html
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Landow, G. P.,
    George P. Landow, 2016. Thackeray
    Available at: http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/wmt/turner2.html
    [Accessed 14 July 2016].
    Party, B. N., 2015. Famous Britons: Arthur Wellesley, DukeGerard Finley, 1999. Angel in the Sun: Turner's Vision of Wellington.History. In: Angel in the Sun: Turner's Vision of History. s.l.:McGill-Queen's Press, p. 139.
    Guy Martin, 2012. How Britain Worked. In: How Britain Worked. s.l.:Random House, p. 25.
    IKBrunel, 2016. SS Great Eastern. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.ikbrunel.org.uk/ss-great-eastern
    [Accessed 6 October 2016].
    Linda Alchin, 2016. English Immigration to America. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.emmigration.info/english-immigration-to-america.htm
    [Accessed 9 October 2016].
    Marjie Bloy, 2016. Rural Unrest in the 1830's: the "Swing" riots. [Online]
    Available at: http://historyhome.co.uk/peel/ruralife/swing.htm
    [Accessed 4 October 2016].
    Marjorie Bloy, 2016. The Effects of Railways.
    [Online]
    Available at: http://www.bnp.org.uk/news/national/famous-britons-arthur-wellesley-duke-wellingtonhttp://www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/railways/effects.htm
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Sohcot, S.,National Gallery, n.d. Joseph Mallord William Turner. [Online]
    Available at: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/artists/joseph-mallord-william-turner
    [Accessed 12 July 2016].
    Robin Blackburn, 2011. Enslavement and Industrialisation. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/industrialisation_article_01.shtml
    [Accessed 8 October 2016].
    Shane Winser, 2011. The 'Great' Eastern. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/victorians/seven_wonders_gallery_07.shtml
    [Accessed 6 October 2016].
    Steve Sohcot,
    2016. Industrial
    Available at: http://www.industrialrevolutionresearch.com/industrial_revolution_classes_of_people.php
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Taylor, D., 2016. The Origins of the Rock. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.bellrock.org.uk/lighthouse/lighthouse_rock.htm
    [Accessed 12 July 2016].

    The Genius of Turner: Painting the Industrial Revolution. 2013. [Film] Directed by Clare Beavan. s.l.: s.n.
    Thomas Lane, 2004. What Brunel did for us. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.building.co.uk/what-brunel-did-for-us/306365.article
    [Accessed 4 October 2016].

    Unknown, 2014. Rain, Steam and Speed - Turner. [Online]
    Available at: http://rainsteamandspeedturner.blogspot.fr/
    ...
    Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/the-fighting-temeraire-tugged-to-her-last-berth-to-be-broken-up
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    William Allen Drew, 2010. Glimpses and Gatherings, During a Voyage and Visit to London. In: Glimpses and Gatherings, During a Voyage and Visit to London. s.l.:Nabu press, p. 234.
    Willis, S., 2010. HMS Indestructible: Unlocking the bloody history of the ship made famous by Turner, the Fighting Temeraire. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1245180/HMS-Invincible-Inside-battle-ship-famous-Turner-fighting-Temeraire.html
    [Accessed 13 July 2016].
    Appendix AA__
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=601&h=446}
    1.Figure 1 The Fighting
    (Ivan Ischenko, The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up (Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/the-fighting-temeraire-tugged-to-her-last-berth-to-be-broken-up, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    This one is quite good too – a recreation of what the Temeraire ACTUALLY would have looked like:
    http://www.kenthistoryforum.co.uk/index.php?topic=14946.0

    Appendix B
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=601&h=447}
    2.Figure 2 Rain, Steam
    (Wikiart, Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway (Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/rain-steam-and-speed-the-great-western-railway, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    Appendix C
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=602&h=446}
    3.Figure 3 Lifeboat and
    (Available at: http://www.artwallpaper.eu/Paintings/archives/8031/joseph-mallord-william-turner-paintings-life-boat-and-manby-apparatus-going-off-to-a-stranded-vessel-making-signal-of-distress-1831, Last accessed 9th September 2016)
    [1] Figure 1. The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up
    [2] Figure 2. Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway
    [3]
    Gerard Finley,
    ...
    of History [book, page[page 139], (Available
    ...
    July 2016)
    [2]

    [4]
    Steve Sohcot,
    ...
    September 2016)
    [3]

    [5]
    Sam Willis,
    ...
    July 2016)
    [4]

    [6]
    Clare Beavan,
    ...
    July 2016)
    [5]

    [7]
    British Broadcasting
    ...
    September 2016)
    [6]

    [8]
    Janet Thomas,
    ...
    September 2016)
    [7] Janet Thomas. Op. cit.
    [8]

    [9]
    Charlotte Higgins,
    ...
    July 2016)
    [9]

    [10]
    The National
    ...
    July 2016)
    [10] Sam Willis, op. cit

    [11] Clare Beavan. Op.Beavan, op. cit.
    [12] Artble, The Fighting Temeraire, (Available at: http://www.artble.com/artists/joseph_mallord_william_turner/paintings/the_fighting_temeraire, Last accessed 14th July 2016)
    [13] Catherine Eagleton, The Industrial Revolution and the changing face of Britain, (Available at: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publications/online_research_catalogues/paper_money/paper_money_of_england__wales/the_industrial_revolution/the_industrial_revolution_2.aspx, Last accessed 8th October 2016)
    [14] Robin Blackburn, Enslavement and Industrialisation, (Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/industrialisation_article_01.shtml, Last accessed 8th October 2016)
    [15] Catherine Eagleton, op. cit.
    [16] Ibid.
    [17] Brunel’s Great Britain, The Story (SS Great Britain), (Available at: http://www.ssgreatbritain.org/story, Last accessed 8th October 2016)
    [18] Linda Alchin, English Immigration to America, (Available at: http://www.emmigration.info/english-immigration-to-america.htm, Last accessed 9th October 2016)
    [19] Sam Willis, op. cit
    [20] Andrew Graham-Dixon, The heartfelt tug of time, (Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/the-heartfelt-tug-of-time-1593109.html, Last accessed 4th October 2016)
    [21]
    Clare Beavan. op. cit.
    [14]

    [22]
    Andrew Howson,
    ...
    September 2016)
    [15]

    [23] Andrew Graham-Dixon, op. cit.
    [24] IKBrunel, SS Great Eastern, (Available at: http://www.ikbrunel.org.uk/ss-great-eastern, Last accessed 6th October 2016)
    [25] Ibid.
    [26] Andrew Graham-Dixon, op. cit.
    [27]
    Gerard Finley, op. cit.
    [16]

    [28]
    Unknown, Rain,
    ...
    July 2016)
    [17]

    [29] Brunel Museum, The Thames Tunnel, (Available at: http://www.brunel-museum.org.uk/history/the-thames-tunnel/, Last accessed 4th October 2016)
    [30] William Allen Drew, Glimpses and Gatherings, During a Voyage and Visit to London (Nabu Press, 2010)
    [31]
    Bob Barton,
    ...
    in Britain [p. 234] (Available at:
    ...
    September 2016)
    [18]

    [32]
    Gareth Campbell,
    ...
    September 2016)
    [19]

    [33]
    Marjorie Bloy,
    ...
    September 2016)
    [20]

    [34] Evan Davis, Jackson Collins, The Impact and Effect of the Steam Locomotive, (Available at: http://www.railroadandsteamengine.weebly.com/impact.html, Last accessed 4th October 2016)
    [35]
    Unknown, Rain,
    ...
    July 2016)
    [21]

    [36] Guy Martin, How Britain Worked (Random House, 2012) [p. 25]
    [37] Thomas Lane, What Brunel did for us, (Available at: http://www.building.co.uk/what-brunel-did-for-us/306365.article, Last accessed 4th October 2016)
    [38]
    British National
    ...
    September 2016)
    [22]

    [39] Marjie Bloy, Rural Unrest in the 1830’s : the “Swing” riots, (Available at: http://historyhome.co.uk/peel/ruralife/swing.htm, Last accessed 4th October 2016)
    [40]
    Artble, Joseph
    ...
    July 2016)
    [23]

    [41]
    Ibid.
    [24]

    [42]
    George P.
    ...
    July 2016)
    [25] Clare Beavan, op. cit.
    [26]

    [43]
    Steve Sohcot,
    (view changes)
    1:23 am
  6. page test edited {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=630&h=415} Image resul…

    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=630&h=415} Image result for lincoln american civil warHowInternational School Of Toulouse
    How
    useful are photographs as historical source material of the American Civil War?
    (President Lincoln with his generals at Sharpsburg, by Alexander Gardner, 3rd October 1862)
    Table
    paintings of contents:
    Identification
    JMW Turner for a historical understanding of Victorian attitudes towards steam power?
    Contents
    Identification
    and evaluationEvaluation of sources…………………………………………………………………. p2
    Investigation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… p3
    Reflection……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. p5
    Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. p6
    Appendix………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….p7
    International Baccalaureate History Internal Assessment
    Ella Backhouse
    sources. 1
    Investigation. 3
    Conclusion. 6
    Reflection. 7
    Bibliography. 8
    Appendix A.. 10
    Appendix B. 11
    Appendix C. 12
    Name: Anita Large
    Candidate Number:

    Word count: 2,200Count: 2200 words
    Identification and evaluationEvaluation of sources:
    This
    sources
    The question that this
    study will investigate the question ‘Howbe answering is “How useful are photographs asthe paintings of JMW Turner for a historical source materialunderstanding of Victorian attitudes towards steam power?” with particular focus on two of his paintings: The Fighting Temeraire (1838), and Rain, Steam and Speed (1844).
    The painting’s background will be investigated in depth though a variety of sources, a full list of which can be found in
    the American Civil War?’ To keepbibliography at the scopeend of this study manageable, I will focus on Alexander Gardner.
    The Impact
    study. One of the Civil War Photos on the Public, fromsources was Angel in the Civil War Trust writtenSun by Jim Drey [1], isGerald Finley[1], a book which offers interpretations of Turner’s landscapes. Another relevant source was Industrial Revolution – Classes of People by S. Sohcot[2], which provided detail on the first source to be evaluated. This source is useful because it tells you what impact of the pictures hadIndustrial Revolution on the population atsocial classes, which was useful for considering the time, so you know how the pictures effected them. It is reliable because it comes from a sitereactions that only talks aboutwould be had towards Turner’s paintings. Finally, the Civil War. Another on is, How Civil War Photography Changed War, written by Eric Niiler [2].This source is useful because it explains howDaily Mail article HMS Indestructible: Unlocking the photos changed the perspectivebloody history of war, so you can see the effect it had onship made famous by Turner, the population atFighting Temeraire**[3]**, which was useful for understanding the time, so they are important from historians because they are primary sources. The third source isrelation between the home of a rebel sharpshooter, bypublic and the blog of Gettysburg National Military Park.[3] This source is useful becauseFighting Temeraire: the reason why Turner romanticized it describes two photographs by Alexander Gardnerin that were staged. This is important for historians because it shows the limitation of photos.
    Source
    way.
    Source
    A: Civil war deadThe Genius of antietam battlefield by Alexander Gardner September 20th, viewable at American Civil War History, Photo Galleries[4]Turner: Painting the Industrial Revolution (2013) **[4]**
    The origin
    ...
    source is from Alexander Gardner photographsBBC Two, which is known for its range of documentaries targeting the Civil War. From this wearts, culture and drama. We can deduce
    ...
    to provide theentertainment and information about an artist to a public who may not be familiar with photos from the battle field. Therefore,him or his art work. On this sourcebasis, it is valuable for this investigation because it provides detail about Turner’s past, his painting techniques and his use of scientific developments at the time to further his paintings. Additionally, BBC Two is a primary source for historians studdingtrustworthy publicly funded body, whose mission and values read “we are independent, impartial and honest”[5].
    Nevertheless,
    the Civil War. For example, in terms of its content, it shows the terrible consequences of the war. Nevertheless, it also has somesource does have limitations in the sense that Gardneras it is well knowndirected to a general public for having stagedentertainment, it will have a more sensationalist aspect on his photographs. For example, in terms of its content,personal life, as well as a focus on his early life which was not relevant to my investigation. As well as this, seeing as it is unlikely that the bodies would have fallenfocused on presenting Turner’s work in a positive light, it doesn’t show the way they are shown incontroversies of his work viewed by critics at the photo.time: instead focusing on present-day perspective.
    Source B: John C Guntzelman, The Civil WarUtopian and Dystopian Visions of the Industrial Revolution in Color (Sterling, 2012)[5]
    The origin
    the art of thisConstable and Turner (2011) **[6]**
    This
    source isoriginates from John C Guntzelman. From this we can deduce that itsa blog, the purpose of which is to provide a colourful perspective oninform and share the photos fromauthor’s own knowledge of the Civil War, because Guntzelman takes photos from historical events or times and turns them into colour photos. Therefore, the sourcesubject. On this basis, it is valuable becausefor this investigation as it shows you what the pictures would have actually looked like to the photographers taking them. For example, in terms of content, it has taken all of the photos from the Warshares not only specific and turned them into colour. Nevertheless,relevant information about steam power and Turner, but it also has some limitationscovers what Turner includes in the sense that Guntzelman is not a historian,his work and what he leaves out. Thomas is an author“artist and photographer. For example, in termsphilosopher”[7] which infers the technical knowledge of its content, it is photos computably generated to turn them into colour.
    Investigation:
    The American Civil War was not
    the first conflictart required.
    However, the source does have limitations in
    that had been photographed but it was the first one where the photographs were shownmay not be thoroughly objective as Thomas caters to the public,her inherent partiality and opinions. As well as this, Thomas doesn’t state her formal qualifications, if any, and therefore it hadshe lacks formal authority on the most impact. Before this people did not really understandsubject.
    Investigation
    Turner is a popular[8] British artist, regarded by some as
    the consequencesbest Romantic painter[9] of war. They could distance themselves away from it,that period. He used oil paint and did not really know of the devastation it caused. The photographers themselves ventured onto the battle fieldswatercolours to get these pictures and they were widely displayed and sold all over America in large quantities.[6] People nationwide saw the truthcreate landscapes, his early work inspired by that of warClaude Lorrain, a French painter known for the first time. Inhis classical scenes of nature and nymphs. Turner manipulated this I am goingidea to explore how reliable photographs are as historical sources, and I will also talk aboutpaint the impact it had onIndustrial Revolution, hence capturing the population at the time.
    Before the pictures produced by the Civil War, peoples view
    excitement and anticipation of war was that it was an honourable thing, that was joyous to partake in. Fightingchange. Turner himself rose rapidly in society from a war wasrelatively poor background: by crossing these societal borders, he provides a way to prove yourself to your family and your country and to winparticularly broad viewpoint of the handindustrial revolution.
    The question “how useful are the paintings
    of JMW Turner for a historical understanding of the preoccupations of a mid-Victorian British society?” (not even your original stated question – make it match the one you loved. Many young men joinedare actually studying!!) is important because it highlights the war without realizing or thinking aboutimpact of the consequencesindustrial revolution on Victorian society, and the possibility that they might not come home after it. That was until for the first timeway in historywhich painters portrayed the population onchanges, as well as limitations of source and the home front gotproblems that arise these limitations. For example, it could be argued that Turner is a viewvery good source of knowledge for historians, as he was living through the carnage of faraway battlefields.[7] Their previous take on warperiod as he was changed overnight, they saw what it was really likepainting it, but despite this, his position an Industrial Revolution enthusiast gives him an inherent bias.
    This essay will be structured into two broad sections, one
    for their loved ones out oneach painting (paintings not actually specified – do so). Within each, the battlefield. They sawhistorical context and Turner’s attitude in the truth of war, it was no longer looked uponpainting will be considered, as a glorious affair, it was now looked uponwell as the way in fear. This is clearly exemplified bywhich the photograph "Confederate dead at the edgepainting helps modern historians in their understanding of Rose's Woods" (see appendix 1, "Confederate dead atmid-Victorian preoccupations in the edge of Rose's Woods", by Alexander Gardner, July 5th 1863)[8] In this photograph weconclusion.
    *These three paragraphs
    can see dead Confederate soldiers after the battle of Gettysburg. It is also a reliable source because itbe compressed into one shorter one if you need space
    The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up (1838)
    is perhaps Turner’s most well-known painting. By 1838, the Industrial Revolution was well underway, and Fighting Temeraire represents the change from Alexander Gardner, a photographersail to steam in the Civil War. Although we do neednavy. For the general public, the Fighting Temeraire was a well-known ship, having contributed to bearNelson’s victory in mind that it doesn't provide a complete picture because itTrafalgar[10]: there is only showing Confederate soldiers and Gardner was known for staging photographs.
    A lot
    this sense of photographers became famous throughnostalgia in the Civil War. Photographerspainting, with the Fighting Temeraire being represented like Mathew Brady, Alexander Gardnera ghost, floating pale and Timothy O'Sullivan risked their lives going ontoalmost washed out behind the battlefields to take pictures and becausesmall, solid figure of the steam-powered iron tugboat. However, this became known around America for providingpainting can be interpreted as the public withloss of the horrific images. They had no difficulty selling their picturesFighting Temeraire as a natural process: an “elegy for everybody wanted to know what was happening.[9] These photos had some positive and useful aspects because they showed the American population what war was really like and itpassing of sail”[11]. Fighting Temeraire also documentedoffers a contrast in the event so that we can look at them now and understandsounds of the War and see what happened in it. This is shown inboats. Surrounding the photograph "Four dead soldiers intugboat are the woods" (see appendix two, "Four dead soldiersnoise and movement of splashes of water and steam rising in clouds from the woods", by Alexander Gardner, July 1863) In this photograph we see four dead soldier lying in a forest. It is a reliable source because it is by Alexander Gardner who was a photographer inchimney, whereas surrounding the Civil War. Although itFighting Temeraire is believed that Gardner staged his photos so it might not be a hundred percent reliable.
    However, there are
    an aura of dignified calm which adds to its ghost-like presence. You also get a numbervery clear sense of limitations to the utility of photographsTurner’s excitement for the historian studying the civil war technically, takingsturdy little tugboat: painted in shiny black, headed towards a picture inbright sunset: the American Civil War was difficultclosing of an era and time consuming, because they hadthe start of a new, exciting one[12]. It is important to carry allnote that many important figures of Victorian society believed that the Industrial Revolution would mean the end of their equipmentnational character and a lot of itthat their morality was very heavy. They also haddoomed[13], such as the Luddites, who were famed for their vitriolic resistance to the industrial revolution[14]. They would therefore have seen this painting in a darkroom to take the pictures in, they used wagonsnegative light. However, for Turner and many other Victorians, this so they hadwas not the case, and the colours and sounds that this painting evoke are a testament to travel around America withthis. Nonetheless, artistic licence must not be forgotten: at that time, the Temeraire would have been little more than a big wagon fullfloating hulk instead of heavy equipment. The photos taken during the war were taken after the battle had taken place because the photographer had to position the camera and focus it and then they had to mix multiple chemicalsdelicate structure represented. VERY little actual history in preparationthis paragraph. I have provided detailed tips for the wet-plate process. It also took just under 30 minutes for the pictureyour next paragraph but YOU need to be taken. Because ofheavily responsible for working this one up. In particular, divide it meant that they could not keep up withinto two sections: first, the fast pace of conflict so there was no way for them to take pictures‘positive’ view of the soldiers fighting. Also becausepainting (excitement about the pictures were taken afternew technology, BACKED UP WITH OTHER SOURCES/QUOTES which substantiate this – e.g. references to such things as the battle had taken place it meant that they could stageSS Great Britain and other naval developments; then a second paragraph outlining the photo.[10] Thenegatives / fears etc, AGAIN backed up with HISTORICAL SOURCES – e.g. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/the-heartfelt-tug-of-time-1593109.html is a FANTASTIC article "The home of a rebel sharpshooter" revisited, Part 1, describes two photos, 'A sharpshooter's last sleep' andwith quotes from Ruskin, Thackeray about the home‘negative’ view of a rebel sharpshooter Gettysburg, were the same man was used and historian William Frassanito describes why he thinks they are staged and why Gardner staged them.
    As well as
    painting; you could say this presages the technical limitations, there are many cases where picturesnegatives of steam ships as later evinced by the American Civil Wardisastrous final project of Brunel (the Great Eastern – have been accuseda detail or two)
    http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB123637988614357383
    Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway (1844) is one
    of being staged. ThereTurner’s most striking paintings. Its focus is one by Alexander Gardner where historians have lookedthe steam-train speeding assertively through the centre of the painting, seemingly straight at it closerthe viewer and decided that it must have been staged. It isinto the onefuture[15]. Around the train you can see a hare running in front of dead soldiers lying aroundthe train: interpreted as a cart with a churchpoetic image of the fastest animal in England at the background. (see appendix 3, Civil War dead on Antietam battlefield,time running in front of the new authority of speed, or as an ironic reminder of how slowly the trains really ran[16]. (this ‘ironic’ comment could be substantiated by Alexander Gardner). Many people believethe fact that Gardner moved these bodies so that he could capture the churchtrains were not always successful, e.g. look up Brunel’s Thames Tunnel / pneumatic trains)
    This ambivalence about the trains is mirrored by the historical context
    in which the background. He did this to give a more impactful meaning topainting was produced. On the photo. Theyone hand,steam-trains were killed near godly land and this sends a stronger message to the American population. Alexander Gardner was well known for staging photos. He wanted to capture the most moving images that he couldnew development[17] and this meant that he frequently moved bodies and even occasionally added props.[11] In 1975 historian William Frassanito looked through some of Gardner’s photographs from the Battleperiod of Gettysburg, and he noticed that there were several photos“Railway Mania”, during which “the prices of railway shares doubled… then fell dramatically”[18] as the newly created middle class sunk all their savings into the railway. The atmosphere around the steam-trains was one of manic excitement, as they would change the same man lyingway in different positionswhich people travelled and eventraded in different location. 'There is one where he is lying on a battle field and another one where he is sitting uprighthuge way (unsubstantiated assertion)[19]. The painting highlights this in the way that although you can sense Turner’s , as a trench looking at“habitual and dedicated traveller”[20], respect for the steam-train. (mention the camera.'[12]
    Another limitation is that photography was
    Great Western Railway here, developed by Brunel, and a great success – explain why of course)
    Nevertheless, the painting can
    also be used to create propaganda duringunderstand the course ofunderlying tensions created by these revolutionary changes… the American Civil War, it was designedtrain’s open furnace glowing ominously red in other words not merely to inform, but also to persuade. The photos boththe rain remains a reminder of peoplethe fears and fields after battlereservations that were perfect for propaganda. A field fullheld by Victorians of dead bodies after a battle could be shown to the other soldiers to show them how well theytime (these ‘fears and reservations’ are doing and how they have won another battle. Or a picturescompletely unstated within this study) – bring in Wellington here as per [[a source of a well looking regiment could make people back at home feel proudcontention: figures such as the Duke of their men and believeWellington, Arthur Wellesley, condemned the railways, warning that they are going to win“would encourage the war. Another way these photos were used for propagandalower classes to move about”[21]]]. The precarious transitional period that Britain was undergoing is best highlighted by taking picturesone key contradiction of Abraham Lincoln in the war tentspainting: a farmer works his field with a traditional plough alongside a steam-train speeding through the soldiers. (see appendix 4, Intelligent agent Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln, and Major General John A. McClernand at Sharpsburg, by Alexander Gardner, October 3, 1862). These photos made it look like Abraham Lincoln was fighting the war next to his fellow Americans. This was used for propaganda to make him look like the great leader whorain (which is getting involved and doing all that he can to win the war. Of course Abraham Lincoln never actually stayed on an army tent or fought in the war. He turned upwhere you could have hinted at the camp took a few picturestension between agriculture and then went home again. Thisindustry e.g. rick burning, Swing Riots). There’s also gavea quote from Carlyle - http://rainsteamandspeedturner.blogspot.fr – which you still haven’t incorporated
    In conclusion, Turner’s paintings are very useful for a historical understanding of
    the men fighting more moralepreoccupations of mid-Victorian British society because their president was taking his time to come outthey provide context and visit them in their army camps.[13] Although Lincoln did visit his generals onea plethora of opinions to reflect on. In the main waysearly 19th century critics were scathing and criticised Turner’s “dynamic compositions”[22]. His popularity grew when he won the war was through his usecited by John Ruskin as “superior to all previous landscape painters”[23], and continued to grow when critics like Thackeray gushed about Fighting Temeraire: “From some such thrill of telegraphs. He had telegraph lines built everywhere so he could quicklyexcitement as makes us glow and rejoice over Mr. Turner and effectively communicate with his generals. TheseFighting Temeraire…”[24] However, Turner’s paintings are called 'Mr. Lincoln's T-mails'[14]. This was a revolutionary use of telegraphsnot technically reliable, due to artistic license. For this reason, although Turner’s paintings useful as emotional testimonies, they are not “fact”, and it meant that Lincoln could know everything that had happened almost straight away. Thanksthis is to be remembered when using them for historical understanding: this Lincoln becameis especially true when you consider his painting Lifeboat and Manby apparatus going off to a stranded vessel making signal of distress (1831). Although Turner really involved inwitnessed a shipwreck and the use of the Manby apparatus, the battles. Thisscene is clearly misrepresented by the photographs. So how far can we believehighly idealised and base our knowledge on these photographs. You may think thatnot a photographtrue representation of the shipwreck[25]. (elements from this paragraph would be better suited for the most reliable source for historiansreflection section)
    It is also interesting
    to go to because they are momentsnote the different interpretations of history captured and frozen in time. As discussed above there arethe paintings. Although many ways to manipulate a picture.
    In conclusion I think that photos are great sources for finding out about
    viewed the mentality of the time so how they used it for propagandaIndustrial Revolution with excitement and howanticipation, this doesn’t necessarily mean that the pictures were taken. And it gives you a look atIndustrial Revolution would have been beneficial to them: the wayreality of life at the time. They also document what happened in a conflict sosituation is that you can understand it better. These photos are also what changed people’s views of war. However, on the other hand you cannot rely on photos as your only source of information because as I explored above it is very easy to manipulate a photo to give a stronger meaning or to changebreakthroughs in technology polarised society. “The middle and upper classes had better food and housing… their population grew and thus had minimal difficulty living during the facts. TheyIndustrial Revolution.”[26], which wasn’t the case for middle and lower class Victorians, “many [of which] were also usedreplaced in factories by machines… Most workers worked for propaganda so they would have stage the photos to make them lookrelatively low wages… The women and children were not paid as goodmuch as possible.
    Reflection:
    In my investigation I reflected on
    men were...” Overall, the fact that even though photographs may seem like amazing sourcesconditions for historians they can still be misleadingthe lower class Victorians were dismal, and must not be looked upon as absolute truth. So inthe paintings offer a chance to acknowledge this I learnt that every source has some reliability but none can be relied upon completely.. However evenpoint of view, (even though photographs are not one hundred present reliable, they are stillTurner himself was from a valuable source because it giveslower class background). (although….to be consistent with the main body of this investigation, you a glimpse intoREALLY need to close by making the past sopoint that you may better understand the periodtwo Turner’s paintings you are studying. And they are alsohave considered DO reflect a primary source. You can also see how people thought atcertain ambivalence about the time through the picturesindustrial revolution, even if they took, how they took them and why they took them. Indon’t cover the American Civil War, it wasparticular social divisions which you identify here)
    Reflection
    One issue raised relating
    to show the world the real sidemethods used by historians was that of war. But as with everything there are limitationslimiting myself to photographs asstudying just two paintings in depth, although many of Turner’s other paintings would have been interesting sources to include. Although limiting myself to sources meant that a source. Firstly,lot of extra information was cut out of the photographers themselves are limited byinvestigation, the technologycutting down of their time. Secondlyprimary material enabled me to focus the photos were staged, so they are not a true representation of what they are showing. As well as this photographs can be cropped, retouched or tinted. So frompoints that I was making more concisely than if more paintings had been investigated. Through this challenge, I concludedlearnt that photos are very valuablehistory offers an overwhelming number of potential sources for any historian, but you should never rely on them completelyone subject, and you should always check other types of sourcesthat historians have to make surechoose which ones will be most relevant the ideas that they back upwant to present in priority, especially when taking into account a word limit.
    Another issue manifested during
    the photo sostudy was that you knowof focusing only on one artist’s work to ascertain social attitudes. During this investigation, I focused only on Turner’s mindset regarding the industrial revolution, but in hindsight a more thorough understanding would have focused not only on Turner’s view, but other artists’ of that it can be trusted.
    Bibliography:
    Niiler, E. (2012, November 27). How Civil War Photography Changed War . Retrieved August 29, 2016,
    period from See<er: www.seeker.com/how-civil-war-photography-changed-war-1766077826.html
    Trust, C. W. (2016, August 29). Photography
    different social backgrounds. Currently, although Turner’s art can speak for general attitudes, it is more focused on Turner’s own ideas of the industrial revolution, which were influenced by his upbringing and social background. Thus, I learnt that the Civil War . Retrieved August 29, 2016, from Civil War Trust : http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html?referrer=https:www.google.co.uk/
    Trust, C. W. (2016, August 29).
    danger of narrowing the scope of an investigation is a less complete result.
    Bibliography
    Artble, 1999. Joseph Mallord William Turner. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.artble.com/artists/joseph_mallord_william_turner
    [Accessed 14 July 2016].
    Barton, B., 2015.
    The Impacthistory of Civil War Photos on Public . Retrieved August 29, 2016, from Civil War Trust : http://www.civilwar.org/resources/the-impact-of-civil-war.html?referrer=https:www.google.co.uk/
    Widmer, T. (2013, May 2). Civil War
    steam trains and Photography . Retrieved August 29, 2016, from The New York Timesrailways in Britain. [Online]
    Available at:
    : http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/02/cameristas/?_r=0
    Kelly, Debra. KnowledgeNuts. 24 November 2014. http://knowledgenuts.com/2014/11/24/the-bizarre-practice-of-staging-civil-war-photographs/. 1 October
    http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofBritain/Steam-trains-railways/
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Bloy, M.,
    2016.
    Unknown. American Civil War History . 1 October 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/pictures/battle-of-antietam/civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield. 1 October 2016.
    Heiser, John.
    The BlogEffects of Railways. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/railways/effects.htm
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Campbell, G., 2001. Railway Mania
    of Gettysburg National Military Park . 7 August 2014. Document . 9 October 2016.
    Wheeler, Tom. Mr. Lincoln's T-Mails: How Abraham Lincoln Used
    the Telegraph to Win1840's. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.railwaymania.co.uk/
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Finley, G., 1999. Angel in
    the Civil War. 2006. Document . 9 October 2016.
    Appendix:
    1.
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=334&h=266} Image result for Confederate dead at the edge
    Sun: Turner's Vision of Rose's Woods
    "Confederate dead at
    History. In: Angel in the edgeSun: Turner's Vision of Rose's Woods", by Alexander Gardner,History. s.l.:McGill-Queen's Press, p. 139.
    Fox, A., 2015. Turner, The Fighting Temeraire. [Online]
    Available at: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/becoming-modern/romanticism/england-constable-turner/a/turner-the-fighting-temeraire
    [Accessed 13
    July 5th 1863)
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=319&h=309} Image result
    2016].
    Gallery, N., n.d. Joseph Mallord William Turner. [Online]
    Available at: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/artists/joseph-mallord-william-turner
    [Accessed 12 July 2016].
    Higgins, C., 2005. A home-grown victory as Turner tops poll
    for Confederate dead atbest painting. [Online]
    Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/sep/06/media.bbc
    Howson, A., 2016. Luddite Bicentary - Events. [Online]
    Available at: http://ludditebicentenary.blogspot.fr/p/events.html
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Landow, G. P., 2016. Thackeray on Turner's "The Fighting Temeraire". [Online]
    Available at: http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/wmt/turner2.html
    [Accessed 14 July 2016].
    Party, B. N., 2015. Famous Britons: Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.bnp.org.uk/news/national/famous-britons-arthur-wellesley-duke-wellington
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Sohcot, S., 2016. Industrial Revolution - Classes of People. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.industrialrevolutionresearch.com/industrial_revolution_classes_of_people.php
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Taylor, D., 2016. The Origins of
    the edgeRock. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.bellrock.org.uk/lighthouse/lighthouse_rock.htm
    [Accessed 12 July 2016].
    The Genius
    of Rose's Woods2.
    "Four dead soldiers in
    Turner: Painting the woods",Industrial Revolution. 2013. [Film] Directed by Alexander Gardner,Clare Beavan. s.l.: s.n.
    Unknown, 2014. Rain, Steam and Speed - Turner. [Online]
    Available at: http://rainsteamandspeedturner.blogspot.fr/
    [Accessed 14
    July 1863
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=334&h=193} http://i2.wp.com/militaryhistorynow.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Antietam.jpg
    3.
    Civil War dead on Antietam battlefield, by Alexander Gardner
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=300&h=156} See original image
    Intelligent agent Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln,
    2016].
    Wallpaper, A., 2013. Art Wallpaper. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.artwallpaper.eu/Paintings/archives/8031/joseph-mallord-william-turner-paintings-life-boat-and-manby-apparatus-going-off-to-a-stranded-vessel-making-signal-of-distress-1831
    [Accessed 9 September 2016].
    WikiArt, 2015. Rain, Steam
    and Major General John A. McClernand at Sharpsburg, by Alexander Gardner, October 3, 1862
    4.
    [1] Drey, Jim.
    Speed: The ImpactGreat Western Railway. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/rain-steam-and-speed-the-great-western-railway
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    WikiArt, 2015. The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up. [Online]
    Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/the-fighting-temeraire-tugged-to-her-last-berth-to-be-broken-up
    [Accessed 5 September 2016].
    Willis, S., 2010. HMS Indestructible: Unlocking the bloody history
    of Civil War Photos on the Public. Availableship made famous by Turner, the Fighting Temeraire. [Online]
    Available
    at: http://www.civilwar.org/resources/the-impact-of-civil-war.html,http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1245180/HMS-Invincible-Inside-battle-ship-famous-Turner-fighting-Temeraire.html
    [Accessed 13 July 2016].
    Appendix A
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=601&h=446}
    1. The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up
    (Ivan Ischenko, The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up (Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/the-fighting-temeraire-tugged-to-her-last-berth-to-be-broken-up,
    Last accessed 1st October 2016
    [2] Eris Niiler, How Civil War Photography Changed War. Available
    5th September 2016)
    This one is quite good too – a recreation of what the Temeraire ACTUALLY would have looked like:
    http://www.kenthistoryforum.co.uk/index.php?topic=14946.0
    Appendix B
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=601&h=447}
    2. Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway
    (Wikiart, Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway (Available
    at: http://seeker.com/how-civil-war-photography-changed-war-1766077826.html,http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/rain-steam-and-speed-the-great-western-railway, Last accessed 1st October 2016
    [3] The Blog of Gettysburg National Military Park, 'The Home of
    5th September 2016)
    Appendix C
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=602&h=446}
    3. Lifeboat and Manby apparatus going off to
    a Rebel Sharpshooter' Revisited, Part 1 (Available at:http://www.https://npsgnmp.wordpress.com/2014/08/07/the-home-of-a-rebel-sharpshooter-revisited-part-1/,stranded vessel making signal of distress
    (Available at: http://www.artwallpaper.eu/Paintings/archives/8031/joseph-mallord-william-turner-paintings-life-boat-and-manby-apparatus-going-off-to-a-stranded-vessel-making-signal-of-distress-1831,
    Last accessed 9th OctoberSeptember 2016)
    [4] Unknown, civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield - Battle

    [1] Gerard Finley, Angel in the Sun: Turner’s Vision
    of Antietam Pictures - American Civil War History - HISTORY.com[book, page 139], (Available at:http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/pictures/battle-of-antietam/civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield,at: https://books.google.fr/books?id=uxroHjm2QAIC&pg=PA139&lpg=PA138&focus=viewport&dq=%22Rain,+Steam+and+Speed+-+The+Great+Western+Railway%22&hl=fr&output=html, Last accessed 1st October14th July 2016)
    [5] John C Guntzelman, The Civil War in Color (Sterling, 2012)
    [6] Jim Drey, Photography and the Civil War

    [2] Steve Sohcot, Industrial Revolution – Classes of People
    (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html,at: http://www.industrialrevolutionresearch.com/industrial_revolution_classes_of_people.php, Last accessed 1st October5th September 2016)
    [7] Jim Drey, The Impact

    [3] Sam Willis, HMS Indestructible: Unlocking the bloody history
    of Civil War Photos on the Publicship made famous by Turner, the Fighting Temeraire, (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/resources/the-impact-of-civil-war.html,at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1245180/HMS-Invincible-Inside-battle-ship-famous-Turner-fighting-Temeraire.html, Last accessed 1st October13th July 2016)
    [8]Alexander Gardner,"Confederate dead at the edge

    [4] Clare Beavan, The Genius
    of Rose's Woods",Turner: Painting the Industrial Revolution [documentary], (Last accessed 20th July 5th 1863
    [9] Jim Drey, Photography
    2016)
    [5] British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, Mission
    and values – Inside the Civil WarBBC (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html,at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/aboutthebbc/insidethebbc/whoweare/mission_and_values, Last accessed 1st Octoberaccessed: 5th September 2016)
    [10] Jim Drey, Photography

    [6] Janet Thomas, The utopian
    and dystopian visions of the Civil WarIndustrial Revolution in the art of Constable and Turner (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html,at: https://janetthomas.wordpress.com/2011/11/18/the-utopian-and-dystopian-visions-of-the-industrial-revolution-in-the-art-of-constable-and-turner/, Last accessed 1st October5th September 2016)
    [11] Alexander Gardner, civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield - Battle of Antietam Pictures - American Civil War History - HISTORY.com

    [7] Janet Thomas. Op. cit.
    [8] Charlotte Higgins, A home-grown victory as Turner tops poll for best painting,
    (Available at:http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/pictures/battle-of-antietam/civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield,at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/sep/06/media.bbc, Last accessed 1st October11th July 2016)
    [9] The National Gallery, Joseph Mallord William Turner, (Available at: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/artists/joseph-mallord-william-turner, Last accessed 12th July 2016)
    [10] Sam Willis, op. cit
    [11] Clare Beavan. Op. cit.

    [12] Frater Holdings,Artble, The Bizarre Practice Of Staging Civil War Photographs - KnowledgeNutsFighting Temeraire, (Available at: http://knowledgenuts.com/2014/11/24/the-bizarre-practice-of-staging-civil-war-photographs/,http://www.artble.com/artists/joseph_mallord_william_turner/paintings/the_fighting_temeraire, Last accessed 1st October14th July 2016)
    [13] John C Guntzelman,Clare Beavan. op. cit.
    [14] Andrew Howson, Luddite Bicentary (Available at: http://ludditebicentenary.blogspot.fr/p/events.html, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    [15] Gerard Finley, op. cit.
    [16] Unknown, Rain, Steam, and Speed – Turner, (Available at: http://rainsteamandspeedturner.blogspot.fr/, Last accessed 14th July 2016)
    [17] Bob Barton,
    The Civil Warhistory of steam trains and railways in Color (Sterling, 2012)
    [14] Tom Wheeler, Mr. Lincoln's T-Mails: how Abraham Lincoln used the telegraph to win
    Britain (Available at: http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofBritain/Steam-trains-railways/, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    [18] Gareth Campbell, Railway Mania of
    the Civil War1840’s (Available at: http://https://www.amazon.com/Mr-Lincolns-T-Mails-Abraham-Telegraph/dp/0061129801,http://www.railwaymania.co.uk/, Last accessed 9th October5th September 2016)
    [19] Marjorie Bloy, The Effects of Railways (Available at: http://www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/railways/effects.htm, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    [20] Unknown, Rain, Steam, and Speed – Turner, (Available at: http://rainsteamandspeedturner.blogspot.fr/, Last accessed 14th July 2016)
    [21] British National Party, Famous Britons : Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington (Available at: http://www.bnp.org.uk/news/national/famous-britons-arthur-wellesley-duke-wellington, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    [22] Artble, Joseph Mallord William Turner, (Available at: http://www.artble.com/artists/joseph_mallord_william_turner#critical_reception, Last accessed 14th July 2016)
    [23] Ibid.
    [24] George P. Landow, Thackeray on Turner’s “The Fighting Temeraire”, (Available at: http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/wmt/turner2.html, Last accessed 14th July
    2016)
    [25] Clare Beavan, op. cit.
    [26] Steve Sohcot, op. cit.

    (view changes)
    1:22 am
  7. page test edited {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=630&h=415} Image result…

    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=630&h=415} Image result for lincoln american civil warHow useful are photographs as historical source material of the American Civil War?
    Caption / reference needed here!(President Lincoln with his generals at Sharpsburg, by Alexander Gardner, 3rd October 1862)
    Table of contents:
    Identification and evaluation of sources…………………………………………………………………. p2
    Investigation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… p3
    Reflection……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. p5
    Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. p5p6
    Appendix………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….p7

    International Baccalaureate History Internal Assessment
    Ella Backhouse
    Word count: 2,1762,200
    Identification and evaluation of sources:
    ...
    focus on the Civil War (??? Meaningless – the question is ABOUT the civil war so how does this narrow it down in any meaningful way?!).Alexander Gardner.
    The Impact
    ...
    by Jim Drey,Drey [1], is the
    ...
    to be evaluated [1].evaluated. This source
    ...
    by Eric Niiler[2].ThisNiiler [2].This source is
    ...
    see the power of photos.effect it had on the population at the time, so they are important from historians because they are primary sources. The third source is, The Bizarre Practice Of Staging Civil War Photographs, from KnowledgeNuts writtenis the home of a rebel sharpshooter, by Debra Kelly[3].the blog of Gettysburg National Military Park.[3] This source
    ...
    because it gives you examples of how photosdescribes two photographs by Alexander Gardner that were staged and why. thisstaged. This is quite reliableimportant for historians because even though it is not from a website on history it has quotes from historians in it.shows the limitation of photos.
    Source A: Civil war dead of antietam battlefield by Alexander Gardner September 20th, viewable at American Civil
    ...
    History, Photo Galleries, Civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield[4] (this is not the proper reference: you need to reference the original photographer, date etc and then say ‘viewable at…’ the website)Galleries[4]
    The firstorigin of this source I have selected for evaluation is Photo Galleries, Civil-war-dead-on-antieam-battlefield it is from AmericanAlexander Gardner photographs of the Civil War History (this really isn’t any good at all: you need to be focusing on the PHOTO ITSELF rather than on a generic website).War. From this
    ...
    can deduce that its purpose
    ...
    to provide an archive of all the American Civil War photos. Thispublic with photos from the battle field. Therefore, this source is particularly relevant to my investigationvaluable because I am looking at how useful photos are asit is a historicalprimary source for historians looking atstudding the Civil War. So I need to look at some of the civil war photos to see how reliable they are. However there are limitations because it is just an archive of photos so there is no information apart from the name of the picture and the year it was taken. Really weak. You need to approach this JUST like you would a proper sourcework question, e.g. adopting the format:
    The origin of this source is…From this we can deduce that its purpose…
    Therefore, the source is valuable because…For
    For example, in
    ...
    content, it … (focus on facts provided and attitudes revealed)
    Nevertheless
    shows the terrible consequences of the war. Nevertheless, it also
    ...
    the sense that…Forthat Gardner is well known for having staged his photographs. For example, in
    ...
    its content, it… (focus on factual omissions and unfair prejudices)it is unlikely that the bodies would have fallen in the way they are shown in the photo.
    Source B: John C Guntzelman, The Civil War in Color (Sterling, 2012)[5]
    The secondorigin of this source I have selected for detailed evaluation is the book byfrom John C Guntzelman called The Civil War in Color.Guntzelman. From this
    ...
    can deduce that its purpose
    ...
    provide a look atcolourful perspective on the photos taken infrom the Civil War inWar, because Guntzelman takes photos from historical events or times and turns them into colour and to describe each one so who took it and why it was taken. Thisphotos. Therefore, the source is particularly relevant to my investigationvaluable because it gives me detailed information onshows you what the photospictures would have actually looked like to the photographers taking them. For example, in terms of content, it has taken duringall of the civil warphotos from the War and turned them into colour. Nevertheless, it also tells me a little bit about the photographer who took it. However there arehas some limitations because there are some pictures wherein the datesense that Guntzelman is not a historian, he is an author and the photographer are unknown. (allphotographer. For example, in terms of this againits content, it is generalised in the extreme. You needphotos computably generated to be commenting on the particular author of the book, his stated purpose and research methods and so on for strengths). Alternatively, use instead one of the ARTICLES I provided you with.turn them into colour.
    Investigation:
    ...
    onto the battlefieldsbattle fields to get
    ...
    in fear. SO GIVE AN EXAMPLE NOW OF A PICTURE WHICH ILLUSTRATES THIS VERY POINT!! (“thisThis is clearly
    ...
    by the photograph…inphotograph "Confederate dead at the edge of Rose's Woods" (see appendix 1, "Confederate dead at the edge of Rose's Woods", by Alexander Gardner, July 5th 1863)[8] In this photograph we can see…itsee dead Confederate soldiers after the battle of Gettysburg. It is also
    ...
    reliable source because…althoughbecause it is from Alexander Gardner, a photographer in the Civil War. Although we do
    ...
    that it doesn’tdoesn't provide a complete picture because…)
    A
    because it is only showing Confederate soldiers and Gardner was known for staging photographs.
    A
    lot of
    ...
    what was happening.[8]happening.[9] These photos
    ...
    in it. (again, you don’t include ONE SINGLE EXAMPLE of aThis is shown in the photograph "Four dead soldiers in the woods" (see appendix two, "Four dead soldiers in the woods", by Alexander Gardner, July 1863) In this paragraph, you just make general assertions)
    However,
    photograph we see four dead soldier lying in a forest. It is a reliable source because it is by Alexander Gardner who was a photographer in the Civil War. Although it is believed that Gardner staged his photos so it might not be a hundred percent reliable.
    However,
    there are
    ...
    civil war Technically,technically, taking a
    ...
    stage the photo.[9] (some quotes from historians / articles that mention this would be wise)
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=334&h=193} http://i2.wp.com/militaryhistorynow.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Antietam.jpgAs
    photo.[10] The article "The home of a rebel sharpshooter" revisited, Part 1, describes two photos, 'A sharpshooter's last sleep' and the home of a rebel sharpshooter Gettysburg, were the same man was used and historian William Frassanito describes why he thinks they are staged and why Gardner staged them.
    As
    well as
    ...
    in the background (put this picture into the Appendix and reference it fully here).background. (see appendix 3, Civil War dead on Antietam battlefield, by Alexander Gardner). Many people
    ...
    occasionally added props.[10]props.[11] In 1975
    ...
    different location. There'There is one
    ...
    at the camera.[11]camera.'[12]
    Another limitation
    ...
    American Civil War –War, it was
    ...
    the soldiers. (see appendix 4, Intelligent agent Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln, and Major General John A. McClernand at Sharpsburg, by Alexander Gardner, October 3, 1862). These photos
    ...
    their army camps.[12]camps.[13] Although Lincoln did visit his generals one of the main ways he won the war was through his use of telegraphs. He had telegraph lines built everywhere so he could quickly and effectively communicate with his generals. These are called 'Mr. Lincoln's T-mails'[14]. This was a revolutionary use of telegraphs and it meant that Lincoln could know everything that had happened almost straight away. Thanks to this Lincoln became really involved in the battles. This is clearly misrepresented by the photographs. So how
    ...
    a picture. (this section could be strengthened by stressing that although Lincoln did indeed visit his generals, the really interesting thing about the way he ran the war was that he made a revolutionary use of the Telegraph – and this is clearly misrepresented by the photographs. Make a specific reference here to “Mr. Lincoln's T-Mails: How Abraham Lincoln Used the Telegraph to Win the Civil War” by Tom Wheeler (https://www.amazon.com/Mr-Lincolns-T-Mails-Abraham-Telegraph/dp/0061129801)
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=254&h=132} See original imageIn

    In
    conclusion I
    Reflection:
    ...
    relied upon completely.completely.. However even
    ...
    a source.
    Firstly,
    Firstly, the photographers
    Bibliography:
    Niiler, E. (2012, November 27). How Civil War Photography Changed War . Retrieved August 29, 2016, from See<er: www.seeker.com/how-civil-war-photography-changed-war-1766077826.html
    ...
    Kelly, Debra. KnowledgeNuts. 24 November 2014. http://knowledgenuts.com/2014/11/24/the-bizarre-practice-of-staging-civil-war-photographs/. 1 October 2016.
    Unknown. American Civil War History . 1 October 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/pictures/battle-of-antietam/civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield. 1 October 2016.
    Heiser, John. The Blog of Gettysburg National Military Park . 7 August 2014. Document . 9 October 2016.
    Wheeler, Tom. Mr. Lincoln's T-Mails: How Abraham Lincoln Used the Telegraph to Win the Civil War. 2006. Document . 9 October 2016.
    Appendix:
    1.
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=334&h=266} Image result for Confederate dead at the edge of Rose's Woods
    "Confederate dead at the edge of Rose's Woods", by Alexander Gardner, July 5th 1863)
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=319&h=309} Image result for Confederate dead at the edge of Rose's Woods2.
    "Four dead soldiers in the woods", by Alexander Gardner, July 1863
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=334&h=193} http://i2.wp.com/militaryhistorynow.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Antietam.jpg
    3.
    Civil War dead on Antietam battlefield, by Alexander Gardner
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=300&h=156} See original image
    Intelligent agent Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln, and Major General John A. McClernand at Sharpsburg, by Alexander Gardner, October 3, 1862
    4.

    [1] Drey, Jim. The Impact of Civil War Photos on the Public. Available at: http://www.civilwar.org/resources/the-impact-of-civil-war.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016
    [2] Eris Niiler, How Civil War Photography Changed War. Available at: http://seeker.com/how-civil-war-photography-changed-war-1766077826.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016
    [3] Frater Holdings, The Bizarre Practice Of Staging Civil War Photographs-KnowledgeNuts. Available at: http://knowledgenuts.come/2014/11/24/the-bizarre-practice-of-staging-civil-war-photographs/,Blog of Gettysburg National Military Park, 'The Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter' Revisited, Part 1 (Available at:http://www.https://npsgnmp.wordpress.com/2014/08/07/the-home-of-a-rebel-sharpshooter-revisited-part-1/, Last accessed 1st9th October 20162016)
    [4] Unknown, civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield - Battle of Antietam Pictures - American Civil War History - HISTORY.com (Available at:http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/pictures/battle-of-antietam/civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [5] John C Guntzelman, The Civil War in Color (Sterling, 2012)
    [6] Jim Drey, Photography and the Civil War (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [7] Jim Drey, The Impact of Civil War Photos on the Public (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/resources/the-impact-of-civil-war.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [8] Jim Drey, Photography and[8]Alexander Gardner,"Confederate dead at the Civil War (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016)edge of Rose's Woods", July 5th 1863
    [9] Jim Drey, Photography and the Civil War (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [10] Author Unknown,Jim Drey, Photography and the Civil War (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [11] Alexander Gardner,
    civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield -
    ...
    October 2016)
    [11]

    [12]
    Frater Holdings,
    ...
    October 2016)
    [12]

    [13]
    John C
    ...
    (Sterling, 2012)
    [14] Tom Wheeler, Mr. Lincoln's T-Mails: how Abraham Lincoln used the telegraph to win the Civil War (Available at: http://https://www.amazon.com/Mr-Lincolns-T-Mails-Abraham-Telegraph/dp/0061129801, Last accessed 9th October 2016)

    (view changes)
    1:18 am
  8. page test edited Who and what was responsible {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholde…

    Who and what was responsible{http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=630&h=415} Image result for lincoln american civil warHow useful are photographs as historical source material of the Great PurgesAmerican Civil War?
    Caption / reference needed here!
    Table
    of 1936-39?contents:
    Identification and evaluation of sources…………………………………………………………………. p2
    Investigation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… p3
    Reflection……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. p5
    Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. p5
    International Baccalaureate History Internal Assessment
    Ella Backhouse
    Word count: 2,176

    Identification and Evaluationevaluation of Sources
    This
    sources:
    This
    study will
    ...
    the question “Who and what was responsible for‘How useful are photographs as historical source material of the American Civil War?’ To keep the Great Purgesscope of 1936-39?”.this study manageable, I will look atfocus on the origin ofCivil War (??? Meaningless – the purges as well as why they developed to reach a conclusions on who or what was most to blame for them.
    The first source I have selected for detailed analysis
    question is ABOUT the article ‘The party that Ate Itself’[1] by Julian Reed-Purvis published in History Review in September 2001 for educational purposes. Oncivil war so how does this basisnarrow it down in any meaningful way?!).
    The Impact of the Civil War Photos on the Public, from the Civil War Trust written by Jim Drey,
    is valuablethe first source to be evaluated [1]. This source is useful because it tells you what impact the investigation ofpictures had on the key questionpopulation at the time, so you know how the pictures effected them. It is reliable because it providescomes from a good overview ofsite that only talks about the events leading up toCivil War. Another on is, How Civil War Photography Changed War, written by Eric Niiler[2].This source is useful because it explains how the Great Terror andphotos changed the different interpretations historians haveperspective of these. Neverthelesswar, so you can see the power of photos. The third source has some limitations foris, The Bizarre Practice Of Staging Civil War Photographs, from KnowledgeNuts written by Debra Kelly[3]. This source is useful because it gives you examples of how photos were staged and why. this investigationis quite reliable because even though it only focusesis not from a website on Stalin’s rolehistory it has quotes from historians in it.
    Source A: American Civil War History, Photo Galleries, Civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield[4] (this is not
    the origin ofproper reference: you need to reference the Great Purgesoriginal photographer, date etc and not onthen say ‘viewable at…’ the way they developed.website)
    The secondfirst source I have chosenselected for detailed analysisevaluation is a cartoon entitled ‘Vaterland’ by Bois Efimov, published in Isvestia in March 1938[2]. Efimov being Stalin’s favourite cartoonist, this cartoonPhoto Galleries, Civil-war-dead-on-antieam-battlefield it is from American Civil War History (this really isn’t any good at all: you need to be focusing on the PHOTO ITSELF rather than on a piece of Stalinist propaganda. Ongeneric website). From this basis itwe can deduce its purpose is valuable to the investigationprovide an archive of all the key questionAmerican Civil War photos. This source is particularly relevant to my investigation because it showsI am looking at how Stalin officially justifieduseful photos are as a historical source for historians looking at the Moscow show trialsCivil War. So I need to look at some of the Soviet population. The messagecivil war photos to see how reliable they are. However there are limitations because it is just an archive of this cartoonphotos so there is that Trotsky, Bukharinno information apart from the name of the picture and others that were later executed, are servantsthe year it was taken. Really weak. You need to the Nazi regime. He communicatesapproach this by depicting them as pigs, thereby dehumanising them, waiting to be fed byJUST like you would a Nazi soldier. Neverthelessproper sourcework question, e.g. adopting the format:
    The origin of this
    source has some limitations foris…From this investigation because it is knownwe can deduce that its prime messagepurpose…
    Therefore, the source
    is falsevaluable because…For example, in terms of its content, it … (focus on facts provided and so does not contain any objectively true information aboutattitudes revealed)
    Nevertheless it also has some limitations in
    the purges.
    Investigation
    There had always been purges
    sense that…For example, in Soviet Russia, beginning with Lenin who had first introduced a systemterms of excluding undesirable party membersits content, it… (focus on factual omissions and established labour camps. Byunfair prejudices)
    Source B: John C Guntzelman, The Civil War in Color (Sterling, 2012)[5]
    The second source I have selected for detailed evaluation is
    the timebook by John C Guntzelman called The Civil War in Color. From this we can deduce its purpose is to provide a look at the Show Trials began,photos taken in 1936, 40 000 party members had already been expelled for political opposition[3]. However these earlier purges had been significantly less violentthe Civil War in colour and random.
    Totalitarian historians, such as Robert Conquest
    to describe each one so who took it and Richard Pipes, believe that Stalin himselfwhy it was largelytaken. This source is particularly relevant to blame formy investigation because it gives me detailed information on the purges and clearly intended to kill his opponents in order to gain absolute power. This interpretation has been popular inphotos taken during the West since World War II.
    Revisionist historians, such as J. Arch Getty
    civil war and Roberta Manning, challengedit also tells me a little bit about the totalitarian view fromphotographer who took it. However there are limitations because there are some pictures where the 1970s onwards. Their viewdate and the photographer are unknown. (all of this again is thatgeneralised in the purges were the Communist Party’s responseextreme. You need to a seriesbe commenting on the particular author of crises in the mid-1930s. They believe that Stalin alone didbook, his stated purpose and research methods and so on for strengths). Alternatively, use instead one of the ARTICLES I provided you with.
    Investigation:
    The American Civil War was
    not have as much control over the process as claimed by totalitarian historians.
    This essay will
    first examine the argumentconflict that had been photographed but it was the first one where the purgesphotographs were a rational and calculated responseshown to politicalthe public, and economic problems, then comparetherefore it tohad the view that Stalin’s irrational personality led tomost impact. Before this people did not really understand the Great Purges taking on such an unnecessarily large scale. And finally evaluate the role played by a system that was already in placeconsequences of war. They could distance themselves away from it, and the supportdid not really know of many people.
    It could be argued that
    the great Purges were Stalin’s rational and calculated responsedevastation it caused. The photographers themselves ventured onto the battlefields to politicalget these pictures and economic problems within the partythey were widely displayed and among the populationsold all over America in order to maintain power.
    Stalin met a lot
    large quantities.[6] People nationwide saw the truth of resistancewar for the first time. In this I am going to pace of industrialisationexplore how reliable photographs are as historical sources, and collectivisation imposed by his 5 year plans. Locally,I will also talk about the commissars sent to overseeimpact it had on the collectivisation of land were met with opposition frompopulation at the peasantry[4], who knew thattime.
    Before
    the sellingpictures produced by the Civil War, peoples view of the productionwar was that it was an honourable thing, that was joyous to the state for low prices set by the state would resultpartake in. Fighting in famine. Local party members, involved in meeting the industrial production targets set by Moscow, were unwillinga war was a way to comply with Stalin’s, apparently illogical ordersprove yourself to identifyyour family and your country and denunciate ‘bourgeois experts’, who’s competence was necessary to win the functioninghand of the industry.
    Inside
    one you loved. Many young men joined the party, hostility towar without realizing or thinking about the 5 year plans was made evident by Kirov’s increasing popularity, who was more moderate than Stalin in terms of economic policyconsequences and opposed the harsh punishment of party members[5]. Most notably, he had voted against Stalin’s proposition of killing of Ryutin[6], the former member of the party Central Committee, for his 200 page documentpossibility that they might not come home after it. That was highly critical of both Stalin himself and his collectivisation policy which secretly circulated amonguntil for the party leadershipfirst time in 1932[7]. To make things worse,history the circulationpopulation on the home front got a view of ‘The Ryutin Platform’ document coincided with the publicationcarnage of a top secret reportfaraway battlefields.[7] Their previous take on the USSR economy in The Bulletin of the Opposition, the magazine started by Trotsky while in exile[8]. As the Leningrad party leader and a new Politburo member, Kirovwar was arguablychanged overnight, they saw what it was really like for their loved ones out on the greatest threat to Stalin’s authority; especially given that some party members wanted him to take overbattlefield. They saw the leadership and he allegedly won more votes than Stalin at the Seventeenth Party Congress[9]. The combinationtruth of these incidents convinced Stalin that there were traitors within the party. Kirovwar, it was assassinated in December 1934 by Nikolayev.
    Whether Stalin
    no longer looked upon as a glorious affair, it was indirectly involvednow looked upon in the assassination of Kirovfear. SO GIVE AN EXAMPLE NOW OF A PICTURE WHICH ILLUSTRATES THIS VERY POINT!! (“this is still debated. It is clear however that Stalin made full use ofclearly exemplified by the situation to justify the implementationphotograph…in this photograph we can see…it is also a systematic and brutal top-down method of purging the partyreliable source because…although we do need to re-establish order. The Milgram study of obedience[10], conducted to understand why ordinary Germans cooperatedbear in the genocidemind that it doesn’t provide a complete picture because…)
    A lot
    of Jews underphotographers became famous through the Nazi regime, supportsCivil War. Photographers like Mathew Brady, Alexander Gardner and Timothy O'Sullivan risked their lives going onto the idea that a system based on authority and hierarchy would work. The study showed that 65% of ordinary people would kill another person if orderedbattlefields to do so by a figure of authority[11].
    The growing unpopularity of Stalin’s 5 year plans that were leading to poverty
    take pictures and famine, meant that “the trials provided scapegoats. Shortages of consumer’s goods … could be attributed to malevolent plotting by enemiesbecause of this became known around America for providing the people”[12]. Withpublic with the chaos created by the murder of Kirov, it was easyhorrific images. They had no difficulty selling their pictures for him use show trials ofeverybody wanted to distract the population from their dissatisfactionknow what was happening.[8] These photos had some positive and create an atmosphere of fear[13].
    The organisation of certain
    useful aspects ofbecause they showed the systemAmerican population what war was really like and it also documented the rewarding of denunciators clearly point to the factevent so that Stalinwe can look at them now and his party had some level of control overunderstand the purgesWar and were acting deliberately. For example, the replacementsee what happened in it. (again, you don’t include ONE SINGLE EXAMPLE of Yagoda asa photograph in this paragraph, you just make general assertions)
    However, there are also a number of limitations to
    the headutility of photographs for the NKVD with Yezhov onhistorian studying the grounds that he did not find enemies ofcivil war Technically, taking a picture in the state fast enough[14]. Children were encouraged to report friendsAmerican Civil War was difficult and family to the secret police iftime consuming, because they thoughthad to carry all of their behaviourequipment and a lot of it was suspicious[15] and propaganda campaigns were launchedvery heavy. They also had to incite lower rank party membershave a darkroom to report their leaders[16].
    However, there are some elements that cannot be justified using logic, suggesting that Stalin’s irrational personality
    take the pictures in, they used wagons for this so they had to travel around America with a considerable influence overbig wagon full of heavy equipment. The photos taken during the form and scalewar were taken after the Great purges took.
    Marina Stal suggests that Stalin’s narcissistic personality “caused him
    battle had taken place because the photographer had to controlposition the information that others received regarding himcamera and his regime, by means of intimidationfocus it and altering literature”[17]. Paranoia, accentuated by allthen they had to mix multiple chemicals in preparation for the false confessions and reports of traitors obtained only through torture[18]wet-plate process. It also took just under 30 minutes for the Show Trials, led himpicture to take drastic and sometimes destructive measures. For example, in 1937 “first rate generals, staff officers … were imprisoned or executed” at a time when they would have been essential in the upcoming Second World War[19], which seems absurd and can only be explained with paranoia. The introductiontaken. Because of a quota system[20] also defies reason asthis it indicatesmeant that the Purges arethey could not basedkeep up with the threat of individuals anymore, but have become completely random.
    These two personality traits, combined with his “emotional empathy … commensurate with that
    fast pace of a psychopath”[21] – demonstrated by his statement that “Death solves all problems. No man,conflict so there was no problem.”[22] – allowed Stalinway for them to believe in the necessitytake pictures of mass murder without remorse.
    Nevertheless,
    the importance of a pre-existing system and support behind Stalin in implementingsoldiers fighting. Also because the terror cannot be underestimated.
    It
    pictures were taken after the battle had taken place it meant that they could be arguedstage the photo.[9] (some quotes from historians / articles that mention this would be wise)
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=334&h=193} http://i2.wp.com/militaryhistorynow.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Antietam.jpgAs well as
    the aggressive ideologytechnical limitations, there are many cases where pictures of Marxism-Leninism, combined with Russia’s history of authoritarian leaders under the ruleAmerican Civil War have been accused of the Tsarsbeing staged. There is one by Alexander Gardner where historians have looked at it closer and decided that it must have been staged. It is the underdeveloped conceptone of human and civil rights**[23]** resulted in this violence. Richard Pipes certainly agreesdead soldiers lying around a cart with a negative assessment ofchurch in the Marxist ideology, statingbackground (put this picture into the Appendix and reference it fully here). Many people believe that “it wasGardner moved these bodies so that he could capture the church in the background. He did this to give a rigid doctrine, dismissive of different views … thus was dogma masquerading as science”[24]more impactful meaning to the photo. They were killed near godly land and Julian Reed-Purvis claims that “the use of terror asthis sends a method of government policystronger message to the American population. Alexander Gardner was perfectly acceptable under Soviet ideology”[25]. However this view does not provide an explanation ofwell known for staging photos. He wanted to capture the Terrormost moving images that is consistent with the facthe could and this meant that previous purges, which consistedhe frequently moved bodies and even occasionally added props.[10] In 1975 historian William Frassanito looked through some of excluding undesirable membersGardner’s photographs from the party through the verificationBattle of Party cards, were less violent[26]. Trotsky, who clearly disagrees with this view, statesGettysburg, and he noticed that “his [Stalin’s] trials developed not from Communism, not from Socialism, but from Stalinism.”[27]
    Stalin could not have carried out
    there were several photos of the Great Purges without using systems that had previously been established. For example, the civiliansame man lying in different positions and secret police, labour camp officials, and bordereven in different location. There is one where he is lying on a battle field and security guards, whichanother one where he had centralisedis sitting upright in 1933-34[28]. The concepts hea trench looking at the camera.[11]
    Another limitation is that photography was also
    used to create propaganda during the Terror were not new either: show trials had already been used by Lenin in 1922[29], as had the methodcourse of purging to maintain order within the party[30] and sending enemies to labour camps, which Lenin had created[31]. Service supports this notion, claiming that “the Great Terror of 1937-8American Civil War – it was designed in other words not a thunderclap in a cloudless skymerely to inform, but the worseningalso to persuade. The photos both of a storm that was already raging”[32] as the labour camps already contained one million people by 1933[33].
    Without the support
    and fields after battle were perfect for propaganda. A field full of many people the Great Purgesdead bodies after a battle could neverbe shown to the other soldiers to show them how well they are doing and how they have taken on suchwon another battle. Or a massive scale. Getty observespictures of a well looking regiment could make people back at home feel proud of their men and believe that “itthey are going to win the war. Another way these photos were used for propaganda was by taking pictures of Abraham Lincoln in the average party member thatwar tents with the soldiers. These photos made it look like Abraham Lincoln was fighting the Yezhovshchina irrational and unpredictable”[34] as they participated willingly in denunciatingwar next to his fellow citizensAmericans. This was used for various reasons[35], such as take revengepropaganda to make him look like the great leader who is getting involved and doing all that he can to win the war. Of course Abraham Lincoln never actually stayed on an army tent or risefought in position, and achieve their ideal ofthe war. He turned up at the camp took a Communist utopia. Stalin hadfew pictures and then went home again. This also created a group of 600 000 excessively loyal followers, who replacedgave the old Bolsheviks that had been executed,men fighting more morale because their president was taking his time to organise the Purges. The members of the nomenklatura voluntarily spread deathcome out and visit them in order to maintain their exclusive privilegesarmy camps.[12] So how far can we believe and special rights[36].
    While the totalitarian interpretation might provide
    base our knowledge on these photographs. You may think that a good explanationphotograph would be the most reliable source for Stalin’s initiationhistorians to go to because they are moments of the Great Purges as a responsehistory captured and frozen in time. As discussed above there are many ways to political opposition, the Revisionist viewmanipulate a picture. (this section could be strengthened by stressing that he was notalthough Lincoln did indeed visit his generals, the mastermind behind everything is more consistent withreally interesting thing about the scale thatway he ran the Terror took towards the end of the 1930s.
    It appears
    war was that Stalin had originally initiatedhe made a top-down systemrevolutionary use of purgingthe Telegraph – and this is clearly misrepresented by the photographs. Make a specific reference here to gain absolute power. However as“Mr. Lincoln's T-Mails: How Abraham Lincoln Used the lower rank party members startedTelegraph to participate to further their own agenda,Win the Purges took on an enormous scale and Stalin lost control over which individuals died. While Stalin was aware ofCivil War” by Tom Wheeler (https://www.amazon.com/Mr-Lincolns-T-Mails-Abraham-Telegraph/dp/0061129801)
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=254&h=132} See original imageIn conclusion I think that photos are great sources for finding out about
    the number of deaths, his increasing paranoia distorted his perceptionmentality of the situation, leading him to believetime so how they used it was necessary,for propaganda and so he did not try to stop what was evidentlyhow the pictures were taken. And it gives you a massacre.
    Add Reflection
    û Role
    look at the way of life at the historian?
    û If disagreement = no historical truth?
    û Who decides, on
    time. They also document what criteria, what is historically relevant?
    û Possible, advisable to describe historical events
    happened in unbiased way?
    û Challenges facing historians? How they differ from scientist/mathematician?
    Appendix I
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=426&h=489} Boris Efimov
    ‘Vaterland’ by Boris Efimov, published in Isvestia in March 1938. Available at: http://spartacus-educational.com/Boris_Efimov.htm
    Appendix II
    The Milgram experiment was
    a studyconflict so that you can understand it better. These photos are also what changed people’s views of war. However, on obedience conducted on 40 males, between the ageother hand you cannot rely on photos as your only source of 20 and 50 and frominformation because as I explored above it is very easy to manipulate a large range of professions and levels of education, who believed they were participating in inphoto to give a study of memory and learning at Yale University.
    14 Yale seniors majoring in psychology were asked
    stronger meaning or to predictchange the behaviour of 100 hypothetical subjects, and unanimously agreed that only an “insignificant minority”facts. They were also used for propaganda so they would administerhave stage the last shock: their estimates ranged from 0%photos to 3%. They were expected to refuse to continue beyondmake them look as good as possible.
    Reflection:
    In my investigation I reflected on
    the shock level labelled ‘very strong’.
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=216&h=459} The results obtained
    fact that even though photographs may seem like amazing sources for historians they can still be seenmisleading and must not be looked upon as absolute truth. So in this table. None ofI learnt that every source has some reliability but none can be relied upon completely. However even though photographs are not one hundred present reliable, they are still a valuable source because it gives you a glimpse into the participants stopped before 300 volts,past so that you may better understand the period you are studying. And they are also a primary source. You can also see how people thought at the time through the pictures they took, how they took them and 26 proceededwhy they took them. In the American Civil War, it was to show the end, even though they expressedworld the same fearsreal side of war. But as those who refusedwith everything there are limitations to continue.
    Subjects frequently showed signs of extreme tension “rarely seen in socio-psychological laboratory studies”. “Subjects were observed to sweat, tremble, stutter, bite their lips, groan, and dig their fingernails into their flesh”,
    photographs as well as laugh nervously.
    In
    a source.
    Firstly,
    the discussionphotographers themselves are limited by the technology of his results, Milgram explains that “The first finding concernstheir time. Secondly the sheer strengthphotos were staged, so they are not a true representation of obedient tendencies manifested inwhat they are showing. As well as this situation. … To disobey would bring no material loss to the subject; no punishment would ensue. It is clearphotographs can be cropped, retouched or tinted. So from the remarksthis I concluded that photos are very valuable sources for any historian, but you should never rely on them completely and outward behavioryou should always check other types of many participantssources to make sure that in punishingthey back up the victim they are often acting against their own values.”
    Bibliography
    Articles
    McCauley, M. ‘Stalin
    photo so that you know that it can be trusted.
    Bibliography:
    Niiler, E. (2012, November 27). How Civil War Photography Changed War . Retrieved August 29, 2016, from See<er: www.seeker.com/how-civil-war-photography-changed-war-1766077826.html
    Trust, C. W. (2016, August 29). Photography
    and Stalinism’ History Review, 23 Dec. 1995
    Pipes, R. ‘ “Death Solves All Problems,” He Said’
    the Civil War . Retrieved August 29, 2016, from Civil War Trust : http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html?referrer=https:www.google.co.uk/
    Trust, C. W. (2016, August 29).
    The New York Times, 10 Nov. 1991. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/1991/11/10/books/death-solves-all-problems-he-said.html [Accessed: 17/09/2016]
    Reed-Purvis, J. ‘The Party that Ate Itself’, History Review, Sep. 2001.
    Wingrove, P. ‘The Mystery
    Impact of Stalin’, History Today, 3 Mar. 2003.
    Books
    Conquest, R. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. New York: Oxford University Press: 2008
    Conquest, R. Stalin: Breaker of Nations. New York: Penguin Books, 1991
    Fiehn,
    Civil War Photos on Public . Retrieved August 29, 2016, from Civil War Trust : http://www.civilwar.org/resources/the-impact-of-civil-war.html?referrer=https:www.google.co.uk/
    Widmer,
    T. (2013, May 2). Civil War and Corin, C. Communist Russia under Lenin and Stalin. London: Hodder Murray, 2002.
    Getty, J. A. and Manning, R. T. Stalinist Terror: New Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
    Lynch, M. Stalin’s Russia, 1924-53. London: Hodder Education, 2008. p. 62
    Oxley, P. Russia 1855-1991: From Tsars to Commissars. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
    Pipes, R. Communism: A History. Random House Publishing Group, 2001.
    Shore, Z. A Sense of the Enemy:
    Photography . Retrieved August 29, 2016, from The High Stakes History of Reading Your Enemy’s Mind. New York: Oxford University Press,York Times : http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/02/cameristas/?_r=0
    Kelly, Debra. KnowledgeNuts. 24 November
    2014.
    Service, R. A
    http://knowledgenuts.com/2014/11/24/the-bizarre-practice-of-staging-civil-war-photographs/. 1 October 2016.
    Unknown. American Civil War
    History . 1 October 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/pictures/battle-of-antietam/civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield. 1 October 2016.
    [1] Drey, Jim. The Impact
    of Modern Russia: from Tsarism toCivil War Photos on the Twenty-First Century. USA: Harvard University press, 2013
    Essays
    Calise, S. Historiography of the Soviet Great Purges. Middle Tennessee State University, Dec. 2014.
    Public. Available at: https://sarahcalise.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/soviet-historiography-calise.pdf
    Galy, A. Adapting to Russia’s changing approaches to its past: the Western historiography of Stalin and Stalinism.
    http://www.civilwar.org/resources/the-impact-of-civil-war.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016
    [2] Eris Niiler, How Civil War Photography Changed War.
    Available at: https://www.societies.ncl.ac.uk/pgfnewcastle/files/2015/05/Galy-Adapting-to-Russias-changing-approaches-to-its-past.pdf
    Milgram, S. ‘BEHAVIORAL STUDY OF OBEDIENCE’,
    http://seeker.com/how-civil-war-photography-changed-war-1766077826.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016
    [3] Frater Holdings,
    The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 67 (No. 4), 1963.Bizarre Practice Of Staging Civil War Photographs-KnowledgeNuts. Available at: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/terrace/w1001/readings/milgram.pdf
    Stal, M. ‘Psychopathology
    http://knowledgenuts.come/2014/11/24/the-bizarre-practice-of-staging-civil-war-photographs/, Last accessed 1st October 2016
    [4] Unknown, civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield - Battle
    of Joseph Stalin’, Psychology, Vol. 4 (No. 9A1), Sep. 2013. Available at: http://file.scirp.org/pdf/PSYCH_2013091614084923.pdf
    [1]Reed-Purvis, J. ‘The Party that Ate Itself’,
    Antietam Pictures - American Civil War History Review, Sep. 2001
    [2]See Appendix I
    [3] Oxley, P. p. 191
    [4]Reed-Purvis, J. p. 14
    - HISTORY.com (Available at:http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/pictures/battle-of-antietam/civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [5] Lynch, M. Stalin’s Russia, 1924-53. London: Hodder Education, 2008. p. 62John C Guntzelman, The Civil War in Color (Sterling, 2012)
    [6] Fiehn, T.Jim Drey, Photography and Corin, C. Communist Russia under Lenin and Stalin. London: Hodder Murray, 2002. p. 207the Civil War (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [7] Oxley, P. p. 192
    [8] Oxley, P. p. 192
    [9] Fiehn, T. and Corin, C. p. 209
    [10] Milgram, S. ‘BEHAVIORAL STUDY OF OBEDIENCE’,
    Jim Drey, The JournalImpact of AbnormalCivil War Photos on the Public (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/resources/the-impact-of-civil-war.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [8] Jim Drey, Photography
    and Social Psychology, Vol. 67 (No. 4), 1963. Available at: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/terrace/w1001/readings/milgram.pdf
    [11]See Appendix II
    [12] Nove, A. An Economic History of
    the U.S.S.R. UK: Penguin Books, 1969. p. 237
    [13] Lynch, M. p. 63
    [14] Service, R. A History of Modern Russia: from Tsarism to
    Civil War (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [9] Jim Drey, Photography and
    the Twenty-First Century. USA: Harvard University press, 2013. p. 218
    [15] Conquest, R. Stalin: Breaker
    Civil War (Available at:http://www.civilwar.org/photos/3d-photography-special/photography-and-the-civil-war.html, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [10] Author Unknown, civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield - Battle
    of Nations. New York: Penguin Books, 1991. p. 114
    [16] Fiehn, T. and Corin, C. p. 216
    [17] Stal, M. ‘Psychopathology of Joseph Stalin’, Psychology, Vol. 4 (No. 9A1), Sep. 2013. Available at: http://file.scirp.org/pdf/PSYCH_2013091614084923.pdf
    [18] Conquest, R. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. New York: Oxford University Press: 2008. p. 35 & 123 and Fiehn, T and Corin, C. p. 215
    [19] Nove, A. p. 269
    [20] Lynch, M. p. 71
    [21] Shore, Z. A Sense of the Enemy: The High Stakes
    Antietam Pictures - American Civil War History of Reading Your Enemy’s Mind. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. p. 75
    [22] Pipes, R. ‘ “Death Solves All Problems,” He Said’
    - HISTORY.com (Available at:http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/american-civil-war-history/pictures/battle-of-antietam/civil-war-dead-on-antietam-battlefield, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [11] Frater Holdings,
    The New York Times, 10 Nov. 1991. AvailableBizarre Practice Of Staging Civil War Photographs - KnowledgeNuts (Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/1991/11/10/books/death-solves-all-problems-he-said.html [Accessed: 17/09/2016]
    [23] Lynch, M. p. 77
    [24] Pipes, R. Communism: A History. Random House Publishing Group, 2001. Available at:https://books.google.fr/books?redir_esc=y&id=h1jNQKLbDqoC&q=nature+of+marxism-leninism#v=snippet&q=nature%20bolshevism&f=falseNo page.
    [25] Reed-Purvis, J. p. 15
    [26] Lynch, M. p. 60
    [27] Djamaluddin, Leon Trotsky Speech
    http://knowledgenuts.com/2014/11/24/the-bizarre-practice-of-staging-civil-war-photographs/, Last accessed 1st October 2016)
    [12] John C Guntzelman, The Civil War
    in Mexico about the Moscow trials [video]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xv--EVbmMys
    [28] Lynch, M. p. 61
    [29] Conquest, R. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. p. 34 & 35 and Service, R. p. 128
    [30] Fiehn, T. and Corin, C. p.204
    [31] Oxley, P. p. 203
    [32] Service, R. p. 210
    [33] Reed-Purvis, J. p. 14
    [34] Getty, J. A. and Manning, R. T. Stalinist Terror: New Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
    [35] Lynch, M. p. 77 & 79
    [36] Ibid, p. 78
    Color (Sterling, 2012)
    (view changes)
    1:18 am

Sunday, October 2

  1. page test edited ... Who and what was responsible for the Great Purges of 1936-39? Identification and Evaluation o…
    ...
    Who and what was responsible for the Great Purges of 1936-39?
    Identification and Evaluation of Sources
    ...
    of 1936-39?”. I will look at the origin of the purges as well as why they developed to reach a conclusions on who or what was most to blame for them.
    The first
    ...
    that Ate Itself’Itself’[1] by Julian
    ...
    for educational purposes (footnote / reference needed).purposes. On this
    ...
    have of these (e.g. ?).these. Nevertheless the
    ...
    way they developed (but the origin of the purges is your question, so this isn’t really a valid point). Generalised points – you need to be more specificdeveloped.
    The second
    ...
    a cartoon entitled ‘Vaterland’ by Russian exilesBois Efimov, published in FranceIsvestia in 1939[1].March 1938[2]. Efimov being Stalin’s favourite cartoonist, this cartoon is a piece of Stalinist propaganda. On this
    ...
    shows how Stalin’s system was perceived byStalin officially justified the people who experienced it.Moscow show trials to the Soviet population. The overall message of
    ...
    is that Stalin used the Terror, represented by the gun he is pointing down at the workersTrotsky, Bukharin and the whipothers that is hanging from his wrist, as a way of preventing the enslaved working class from rebelling against his industrialisation system. By exaggerating Stalin’s size in proportionwere later executed, are servants to others, the cartoonist expresses the view that Stalin has all the power, and working people are only insignificant elements he controls. The message ofNazi regime. He communicates this cartoon fits with the totalitarian view of the Great Purges.by depicting them as pigs, thereby dehumanising them, waiting to be fed by a Nazi soldier. Nevertheless the
    ...
    investigation because the exact authors of this cartoon are unknown (thisit is poor – you should find out, and if you don’t know this it looks bad),known that its prime message is false and so it isdoes not certain how much they knewcontain any objectively true information about the workings of the Terror machine or how objective their perspective is. (you are having to rely on speculation because you have chosen a source you cannot really properly evaluate)purges.
    Investigation
    ...
    system of including(?)excluding undesirable party
    ...
    established labour camps (the Red Terror is worth mentioning).camps. By the
    ...
    for political opposition[2].opposition[3]. However these
    ...
    random.
    Totalitarian historians (such as…?)historians, such as Robert Conquest and Richard Pipes, believe that
    ...
    II.
    Revisionist historians (such as…?)historians, such as J. Arch Getty and Roberta Manning, challenged the
    This essay will first examine the argument that the purges were a rational and calculated response to political and economic problems, then compare it to the view that Stalin’s irrational personality led to the Great Purges taking on such an unnecessarily large scale. And finally evaluate the role played by a system that was already in place and the support of many people.
    ...
    to maintain power.Stalinpower.
    Stalin
    met a
    ...
    from the peasantry[3],peasantry[4], who knew
    ...
    of party members[4].members[5]. Most notably,
    ...
    killing of Ryutin[5],Ryutin[6], the former
    ...
    leadership in 1932[6].1932[7]. To make
    ...
    while in exile[7].exile[8]. As the
    ...
    Seventeenth Party Congress[8].Congress[9]. The combination
    ...
    study of obedience[9],obedience[10], conducted to
    ...
    figure of authority (this is a very bold and curious statement that would best be substantiated with a reference to an Appendix / footnote where you should elaborate)authority[11].
    The growing
    ...
    meant that he needed“the trials provided scapegoats. Shortages of consumer’s goods … could be attributed to find scapegoats for his economic failures[10].malevolent plotting by enemies of the people”[12]. With the
    ...
    atmosphere of fear[11].fear[13].
    The organisation
    ...
    state fast enough[12].enough[14]. Children were
    ...
    behaviour was suspicious[13]suspicious[15] and propaganda
    ...
    report their leaders[14]. You’re including plenty of footnotes, but it’s not clear what you’re referencing – it is ALWAYS better to have a QUOTE from the appropriate book, then a footnote next to it, to ensure it’s clear what the book actually says.leaders[16].
    However, there are some elements that cannot be justified using logic, suggesting that Stalin’s irrational personality had a considerable influence over the form and scale the Great purges took.
    ...
    narcissistic personality led“caused him to want to forcecontrol the idealised image he had of himselfinformation that others received regarding him and his regime onto othersregime, by means
    ...
    intimidation and censorship[15]. (again, this is crying out for a quote to back up what you are saying)altering literature”[17]. Paranoia, accentuated
    ...
    only through torture[16]torture[18] for the
    ...
    For example, the purge of the military in 1937 “first rate generals, staff officers … were imprisoned or executed” at a time when they would have been essential in the threat of a second world war was obvious[17]upcoming Second World War[19], which seems absurd,absurd and can
    ...
    a quota system[18]system[20] also defies
    ...
    with his obvious lack“emotional empathy … commensurate with that of empathy[19]a psychopath”[21] – demonstrated
    ...
    man, no problem.”[20]problem.”[22] – allowed
    Nevertheless, the importance of a pre-existing system and support behind Stalin in implementing the terror cannot be underestimated.
    ...
    and civil rights**[21]**rights**[23]** resulted in
    ...
    masquerading as science”[22] *betterscience”[24] and Julian
    ...
    under Soviet ideology”[23].ideology”[25]. However this
    ...
    were less violent[24].violent[26]. Trotsky, who clearly disagrees with this view, states that “his [Stalin’s] trials developed not from Communism, not from Socialism, but from Stalinism.”[27]
    Stalin could
    ...
    centralised in 1933-34[25].1933-34[28]. The concepts
    ...
    Lenin in 1922[26],1922[29], as had
    ...
    within the party[27]party[30] and sending
    ...
    Lenin had created[28].created[31]. Service supports
    ...
    was already raging”[29]raging”[32] as the
    ...
    people by 1933[30]. Much better use of quotes here.1933[33].
    Without the
    ...
    irrational and unpredictable”[31]unpredictable”[34] as they
    ...
    for various reasons[32],reasons[35], such as
    ...
    and special rights[33].rights[36].
    While the totalitarian interpretation might provide a good explanation for Stalin’s initiation of the Great Purges as a response to political opposition, the Revisionist view that he was not the mastermind behind everything is more consistent with the scale that the Terror took towards the end of the 1930s.
    It appears that Stalin had originally initiated a top-down system of purging to gain absolute power. However as the lower rank party members started to participate to further their own agenda, the Purges took on an enormous scale and Stalin lost control over which individuals died. While Stalin was aware of the number of deaths, his increasing paranoia distorted his perception of the situation, leading him to believe it was necessary, and so he did not try to stop what was evidently a massacre.
    ...
    û Possible, advisable to describe historical events in unbiased way?
    û Challenges facing historians? How they differ from scientist/mathematician?
    Appendix I
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=426&h=489} Boris Efimov
    ‘Vaterland’ by Boris Efimov, published in Isvestia in March 1938. Available at: http://spartacus-educational.com/Boris_Efimov.htm
    Appendix II
    The Milgram experiment was a study on obedience conducted on 40 males, between the age of 20 and 50 and from a large range of professions and levels of education, who believed they were participating in in a study of memory and learning at Yale University.
    14 Yale seniors majoring in psychology were asked to predict the behaviour of 100 hypothetical subjects, and unanimously agreed that only an “insignificant minority” would administer the last shock: their estimates ranged from 0% to 3%. They were expected to refuse to continue beyond the shock level labelled ‘very strong’.
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=216&h=459} The results obtained can be seen in this table. None of the participants stopped before 300 volts, and 26 proceeded to the end, even though they expressed the same fears as those who refused to continue.
    Subjects frequently showed signs of extreme tension “rarely seen in socio-psychological laboratory studies”. “Subjects were observed to sweat, tremble, stutter, bite their lips, groan, and dig their fingernails into their flesh”, as well as laugh nervously.
    In the discussion of his results, Milgram explains that “The first finding concerns the sheer strength of obedient tendencies manifested in this situation. … To disobey would bring no material loss to the subject; no punishment would ensue. It is clear from the remarks and outward behavior of many participants that in punishing the victim they are often acting against their own values.”

    Bibliography
    Articles
    ...
    Service, R. A History of Modern Russia: from Tsarism to the Twenty-First Century. USA: Harvard University press, 2013
    Essays
    Calise, S. Historiography of the Soviet Great Purges. Middle Tennessee State University, Dec. 2014. Available at: https://sarahcalise.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/soviet-historiography-calise.pdf
    Galy, A. Adapting to Russia’s changing approaches to its past: the Western historiography of Stalin and Stalinism. Available at: https://www.societies.ncl.ac.uk/pgfnewcastle/files/2015/05/Galy-Adapting-to-Russias-changing-approaches-to-its-past.pdf

    Milgram, S. ‘BEHAVIORAL STUDY OF OBEDIENCE’, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 67 (No. 4), 1963. Available at: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/terrace/w1001/readings/milgram.pdf
    Stal, M. ‘Psychopathology of Joseph Stalin’, Psychology, Vol. 4 (No. 9A1), Sep. 2013. Available at: http://file.scirp.org/pdf/PSYCH_2013091614084923.pdf
    [1] Taken from Oxley, P. Russia 1855-1991: From Tsars to Commissars. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. p. 200
    [2] Oxley, P. p. 191
    [3]Reed-Purvis,
    [1]Reed-Purvis, J. ‘The
    ...
    Review, Sep. 2001.2001
    [2]See Appendix I
    [3] Oxley, P. p. 191
    [4]Reed-Purvis, J.
    p. 14
    [4]

    [5]
    Lynch, M.
    ...
    p. 62
    [5]

    [6]
    Fiehn, T.
    ...
    p. 207
    [6] Oxley, P. p. 192

    [7] Oxley, P. p. 192
    [8] Oxley, P. p. 192
    [9]
    Fiehn, T.
    ...
    p. 209
    [9]

    [10]
    Milgram, S.
    ...
    at: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/terrace/w1001/readings/milgram.pdf
    [10] Reed-Purvis, J.

    [11]See Appendix II
    [12] Nove, A. An Economic History of the U.S.S.R. UK: Penguin Books, 1969.
    p. 14 and Fiehn, T. and Corin, C. p. 226
    [11]
    237
    [13]
    Lynch, M. p. 63
    [12]

    [14]
    Service, R.
    ...
    p. 218
    [13]

    [15]
    Conquest, R.
    ...
    p. 114
    [14]

    [16]
    Fiehn, T.
    ...
    p. 216
    [15]

    [17]
    Stal, M.
    ...
    at: http://file.scirp.org/pdf/PSYCH_2013091614084923.pdf
    [16]

    [18]
    Conquest, R.
    ...
    p. 215
    [17]

    [19] Nove, A. p. 269
    [20]
    Lynch, M. p. 69
    [18] Ibid,
    p. 71
    [19]

    [21]
    Shore, Z.
    ...
    p. 75
    [20]

    [22]
    Pipes, R.
    ...
    [Accessed: 17/09/2016]
    [21]

    [23]
    Lynch, M. p. 77
    [22]

    [24]
    Pipes, R.
    ...
    at:https://books.google.fr/books?redir_esc=y&id=h1jNQKLbDqoC&q=nature+of+marxism-leninism#v=snippet&q=nature%20bolshevism&f=falseNo page.
    [23]

    [25]
    Reed-Purvis, J. p. 15
    [24]

    [26]
    Lynch, M. p. 60
    [25] Ibid,

    [27] Djamaluddin, Leon Trotsky Speech in Mexico about the Moscow trials [video]. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xv--EVbmMys
    [28] Lynch, M.
    p. 61
    [26]

    [29]
    Conquest, R.
    ...
    p. 128
    [27]

    [30]
    Fiehn, T.
    ...
    C. p.204
    [28]

    [31]
    Oxley, P. p. 203
    [29]

    [32]
    Service, R. p. 210
    [30]

    [33]
    Reed-Purvis, J. p. 14
    [31]

    [34]
    Getty, J.
    ...
    Press, 1993.
    [32]

    [35]
    Lynch, M.
    ...
    & 79
    [33]

    [36]
    Ibid, p.
    (view changes)
    11:50 pm
  2. page test edited International School Of Toulouse How useful are Who and what was responsible for the paintin…

    International School Of Toulouse
    How useful are
    Who and what was responsible for the paintingsGreat Purges of JMW Turner for a historical understanding of Victorian attitudes towards industrial development?
    Contents
    1936-39?
    Identification and Evaluation of sources. 1
    Investigation. 3
    Conclusion. 6
    Reflection. 7
    Bibliography. 8
    Appendix A. 10
    Appendix B. 11
    Appendix C. 12
    Name: Anita Large
    Candidate Number:
    Word Count: 2200 words
    Identification
    Sources
    This study will investigate the question “Who
    and Evaluationwhat was responsible for the Great Purges of sources1936-39?”.
    The questionfirst source I have selected for detailed analysis is the article ‘The party that Ate Itself’ by Julian Reed-Purvis published in History Review in September 2001 for educational purposes (footnote / reference needed). On this study will be answeringbasis it is “How useful arevaluable to the paintingsinvestigation of JMW Turner forthe key question because it provides a historical understandinggood overview of Victorian attitudes towards industrial development?” with particular focus on two of his paintings: The Fighting Temeraire (1838), and Rain, Steam and Speed (1844).
    The painting’s background will be investigated in depth though a variety of sources, a full list of which can be found in
    the bibliography atevents leading up to the end of this study. One ofGreat Terror and the sources was Angel in the Sun by Gerald Finley[1], a book which offersdifferent interpretations historians have of Turner’s landscapes. Another relevantthese (e.g. ?). Nevertheless the source was Industrial Revolution – Classes of People by S. Sohcot[2], which provided detailhas some limitations for this investigation because it only focuses on Stalin’s role in the impactorigin of the Industrial RevolutionGreat Purges and not on the social classes, which was useful for consideringway they developed (but the reactions that would be had towards Turner’s paintings. Finally, the Daily Mail article HMS Indestructible: Unlocking the bloody historyorigin of the ship made famous by Turner, the Fighting Temeraire**[3]**, which was useful for understanding the relation between the public and the Fighting Temeraire: the reason why Turner romanticized it in that way.
    Source A: The Genius of Turner: Painting the Industrial Revolution (2013) **[4]**
    purges is your question, so this isn’t really a valid point). Generalised points – you need to be more specific
    The origin of thissecond source is BBC Two, which is knownI have chosen for its range of documentaries targeting the arts, culture and drama. We can deduce that its purposedetailed analysis is to provide entertainment and information about an artist to a public who may not be familiar with him or his art work.cartoon by Russian exiles published in France in 1939[1]. On this basis,basis it is valuable for thisto the investigation of the key question because it provides detail about Turner’s past, his painting techniques and his useshows how Stalin’s system was perceived by the people who experienced it. The overall message of scientific developmentsthis cartoon is that Stalin used the Terror, represented by the gun he is pointing down at the time to further his paintings. Additionally, BBC Two is a trustworthy publicly funded body, whose mission and values read “we are independent, impartialworkers and honest”[5].
    Nevertheless,
    the source does have limitations inwhip that as it is directed to a general public for entertainment, it will have a more sensationalist aspect onhanging from his personal life, as wellwrist, as a focus onway of preventing the enslaved working class from rebelling against his early life which was not relevantindustrialisation system. By exaggerating Stalin’s size in proportion to my investigation. As well as this, seeing as it is focused on presenting Turner’s work in a positive light, it doesn’t showothers, the controversies of his work viewed by critics atcartoonist expresses the time: instead focusing on present-day perspective.
    Source B: The Utopian
    view that Stalin has all the power, and Dystopian Visionsworking people are only insignificant elements he controls. The message of this cartoon fits with the Industrial Revolution in the arttotalitarian view of Constable and Turner (2011) **[6]**
    This
    the Great Purges. Nevertheless the source originates from a blog,has some limitations for this investigation because the purposeexact authors of whichthis cartoon are unknown (this is to informpoor – you should find out, and share the author’s own knowledge of the subject. Onif you don’t know this basis,it looks bad), and so it is valuable for this investigation as it shares not only specific and relevant informationcertain how much they knew about the Industrial Revolution and Turner, but it also covers what Turner includes in his work and what he leaves out. Thomas is an “artist and philosopher”[7] which infers the technical knowledgeworkings of the art required.
    However, the source does have limitations in that it may not be thoroughly
    Terror machine or how objective as Thomas caterstheir perspective is. (you are having to her inherent partiality and opinions. As well as this, Thomas doesn’t state her formal qualifications, if any, and therefore she lacks formal authorityrely on the subject. speculation because you have chosen a source you cannot really properly evaluate)
    Investigation
    Turner isThere had always been purges in Soviet Russia, beginning with Lenin who had first introduced a popular[8] British artist, regarded by some as the best Romantic painter[9]system of that period. He used oil paintincluding(?) undesirable party members and watercolours to create landscapes, his early work inspired by that of Claude Lorrain, a French painter knownestablished labour camps (the Red Terror is worth mentioning). By the time the Show Trials began, in 1936, 40 000 party members had already been expelled for his classical scenes of naturepolitical opposition[2]. However these earlier purges had been significantly less violent and nymphs. Turner manipulated this idearandom.
    Totalitarian historians (such as…?) believe that Stalin himself was largely
    to paintblame for the Industrial Revolution, hence capturing the excitementpurges and anticipation of change. Turner himself rose rapidlyclearly intended to kill his opponents in societyorder to gain absolute power. This interpretation has been popular in the West since World War II.
    Revisionist historians (such as…?) challenged the totalitarian view
    from a relatively poor background: by crossing these societal borders, he provides a particularly broad viewpoint of the industrial revolution.
    The question “how useful are
    1970s onwards. Their view is that the paintings of JMW Turner forpurges were the Communist Party’s response to a historical understandingseries of crises in the preoccupations ofmid-1930s. They believe that Stalin alone did not have as much control over the process as claimed by totalitarian historians.
    This essay will first examine the argument that the purges were
    a mid-Victorian British society?” is important becauserational and calculated response to political and economic problems, then compare it highlightsto the impact ofview that Stalin’s irrational personality led to the industrial revolutionGreat Purges taking on Victorian society, andsuch an unnecessarily large scale. And finally evaluate the wayrole played by a system that was already in which painters portrayed the changes, as well as limitations of sourceplace and the problems that arise these limitations. For example, itsupport of many people.
    It
    could be argued that Turner is a very good source of knowledge for historians, as he was living through the period as he was painting it, but despite this, his position an Industrial Revolution enthusiast gives him an inherent bias.
    This essay will be structured into two broad sections, one for each painting. Within each,
    great Purges were Stalin’s rational and calculated response to political and economic problems within the historical contextparty and Turner’s attitude inamong the painting will be considered, as well as the waypopulation in which the painting helps modern historians in their understandingorder to maintain power.Stalin met a lot of mid-Victorian preoccupations in the conclusion.
    The Fighting Temeraire tugged
    resistance to her last berth to be broken up (1838) is perhaps Turner’s most well-known painting. By 1838, the Industrial Revolution was well underway,pace of industrialisation and Fighting Temeraire representscollectivisation imposed by his 5 year plans. Locally, the change from sailcommissars sent to steam inoversee the navy. Forcollectivisation of land were met with opposition from the general public,peasantry[3], who knew that the Fighting Temeraire was a well-known ship, having contributedselling of the production to Nelson’s victorythe state for low prices set by the state would result in Trafalgar[10]: there is this sense of nostalgiafamine. Local party members, involved in meeting the painting,industrial production targets set by Moscow, were unwilling to comply with the Fighting Temeraire being represented like a ghost, floating paleStalin’s, apparently illogical orders to identify and almost washed out behinddenunciate ‘bourgeois experts’, who’s competence was necessary to the small, solid figurefunctioning of the steam-powered iron tugboat. However, this painting proposesindustry.
    Inside
    the lossparty, hostility to the 5 year plans was made evident by Kirov’s increasing popularity, who was more moderate than Stalin in terms of economic policy and opposed the Fighting Temeraire as a natural process: an “elegy for the passingharsh punishment of sail”[11]. Fighting Temeraire also offers a contrast inparty members[4]. Most notably, he had voted against Stalin’s proposition of killing of Ryutin[5], the soundsformer member of the boats. Surrounding the tugboat are the noise and movementparty Central Committee, for his 200 page document that was highly critical of splashes of waterboth Stalin himself and steam risinghis collectivisation policy which secretly circulated among the party leadership in clouds from1932[6]. To make things worse, the chimney, whereas surroundingcirculation of ‘The Ryutin Platform’ document coincided with the Fighting Temeraire is an aurapublication of dignified calm which adds to its ghost-like presence. You also get a very clear sensetop secret report on the USSR economy in The Bulletin of Turner’s excitement for the sturdy little tugboat: paintedOpposition, the magazine started by Trotsky while in shiny black, headed towards a bright sunset:exile[7]. As the closing of an eraLeningrad party leader and a new Politburo member, Kirov was arguably the start of a new, exciting one[12]. It is importantgreatest threat to note that many important figures of Victorian society believedStalin’s authority; especially given that some party members wanted him to take over the Industrial Revolution would meanleadership and he allegedly won more votes than Stalin at the endSeventeenth Party Congress[8]. The combination of their national character andthese incidents convinced Stalin that their morality was doomed[13], such as the Luddites, whothere were famed for their vitriolic resistance totraitors within the industrial revolution[14]. They would therefore have seen this paintingparty. Kirov was assassinated in a negative light. However, for Turner and many other Victorians, thisDecember 1934 by Nikolayev.
    Whether Stalin
    was notindirectly involved in the case, and the colours and soundsassassination of Kirov is still debated. It is clear however that this painting evoke are a testamentStalin made full use of the situation to this. Nonetheless, artistic licence must not be forgotten: at that time,justify the Temeraire would have been little more thanimplementation a floating hulk insteadsystematic and brutal top-down method of purging the delicate structure represented.
    Rain, Steam and Speed:
    party to re-establish order. The Great Western Railway (1844) is oneMilgram study of Turner’s most striking paintings. Its focus is the steam-train speeding assertively throughobedience[9], conducted to understand why ordinary Germans cooperated in the centregenocide of Jews under the painting, seemingly straight atNazi regime, supports the vieweridea that a system based on authority and into the future[15]. Around the train you can seehierarchy would work. The study showed that 65% of ordinary people would kill another person if ordered to do so by a hare running in frontfigure of the train: interpreted asauthority (this is a poetic imagevery bold and curious statement that would best be substantiated with a reference to an Appendix / footnote where you should elaborate)
    The growing unpopularity
    of Stalin’s 5 year plans that were leading to poverty and famine, meant that he needed to find scapegoats for his economic failures[10]. With the fastest animal in England atchaos created by the time running in frontmurder of the new authorityKirov, it was easy for him use show trials of speed, or asto distract the population from their dissatisfaction and create an ironic reminderatmosphere of fear[11].
    The organisation of certain aspects
    of how slowly the trains really ran[16]. Atsystem and the rewarding of denunciators clearly point to the fact that time, steam-trains were a new development[17]Stalin and a sourcehis party had some level of contention: figures suchcontrol over the purges and were acting deliberately. For example, the replacement of Yagoda as the Dukehead of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, condemned the railways, warningNKVD with Yezhov on the grounds that they “would encouragehe did not find enemies of the lower classesstate fast enough[12]. Children were encouraged to report friends and family to move about”[18], but also periods of Railway Mania, during which “the prices of railway shares doubled… then fell dramatically”[19] as the newly created middle class sunk allsecret police if they thought their savings into the railway. The atmosphere around the steam-trainsbehaviour was onesuspicious[13] and propaganda campaigns were launched to incite lower rank party members to report their leaders[14]. You’re including plenty of manic excitement, as they would changefootnotes, but it’s not clear what you’re referencing – it is ALWAYS better to have a QUOTE from the way in which people travelled and traded inappropriate book, then a huge way[20]. The painting highlights this infootnote next to it, to ensure it’s clear what the waybook actually says.
    However, there are some elements
    that although you can sense Turner’s , ascannot be justified using logic, suggesting that Stalin’s irrational personality had a “habitualconsiderable influence over the form and dedicated traveller”[21], respect forscale the steam-train,Great purges took.
    Marina Stal suggests that Stalin’s narcissistic personality led him to want to force
    the train’s open furnace glowing ominously red in the rain remains a reminderidealised image he had of the fearshimself and reservations that were heldhis regime onto others by Victoriansmeans of the time. The precarious transitional period that Britain was undergoingintimidation and censorship[15]. (again, this is best highlightedcrying out for a quote to back up what you are saying) Paranoia, accentuated by all the contradictionsfalse confessions and reports of the painting: a farmer works his field with a traditional plough alongside a steam-train speedingtraitors obtained only through the rain.
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, Turner’s paintings are very useful
    torture[16] for a historical understanding of the preoccupations of mid-Victorian British society because they provide contextShow Trials, led him to take drastic and a plethorasometimes destructive measures. For example, the purge of opinions to reflect on. In the early 19th century critics were scathing and criticised Turner’s “dynamic compositions”[22]. His popularity grewmilitary in 1937 at a time when hethe threat of a second world war was cited by John Ruskin as “superior to all previous landscape painters”[23],obvious[17] seems absurd, and continued to grow when critics like Thackeray gushed about Fighting Temeraire: “From some such thrillcan only be explained with paranoia. The introduction of excitementa quota system[18] also defies reason as makes us glow and rejoice over Mr. Turner and his Fighting Temeraire…”[24] However, Turner’s paintingsit indicates that the Purges are not technically reliable, due to artistic license. For this reason, although Turner’s paintings useful as emotional testimonies, they are not “fact”, and this is to be remembered when using them for historical understanding: this is especially true when you considerbased the threat of individuals anymore, but have become completely random.
    These two personality traits, combined with
    his painting Lifeboat and Manby apparatus going offobvious lack of empathy[19] – demonstrated by his statement that “Death solves all problems. No man, no problem.”[20] – allowed Stalin to a stranded vessel making signalbelieve in the necessity of mass murder without remorse.
    Nevertheless, the importance
    of distress (1831). Although Turner really witnessed a shipwreckpre-existing system and support behind Stalin in implementing the useterror cannot be underestimated.
    It could be argued that the aggressive ideology
    of Marxism-Leninism, combined with Russia’s history of authoritarian leaders under the Manby apparatus,rule of the scene is highly idealisedTsars and notthe underdeveloped concept of human and civil rights**[21]** resulted in this violence. Richard Pipes certainly agrees with a true representationnegative assessment of the shipwreck[25].
    It is also interesting to note the
    Marxist ideology, stating that “it was a rigid doctrine, dismissive of different interpretationsviews … thus was dogma masquerading as science”[22] *better and Julian Reed-Purvis claims that “the use of terror as a method of government policy was perfectly acceptable under Soviet ideology”[23]. However this view does not provide an explanation of the paintings. Although many viewed the Industrial RevolutionTerror that is consistent with excitement and anticipation, this doesn’t necessarily meanthe fact that previous purges, which consisted of excluding undesirable members from the Industrial Revolution would have been beneficial to them:party through the realityverification of Party cards, were less violent[24].
    Stalin could not have carried out
    the situation isGreat Purges without using systems that had previously been established. For example, the breakthroughs in technology polarised society. “The middlecivilian and upper classes had better foodsecret police, labour camp officials, and housing… their population grewborder and thus had minimal difficulty living during the Industrial Revolution.”[26],security guards, which wasn’t the case for middle and lower class Victorians, “many [of which] were replacedhe had centralised in factories by machines… Most workers worked for relatively low wages…1933-34[25]. The women and childrenconcepts he used to create the Terror were not paidnew either: show trials had already been used by Lenin in 1922[26], as much as men were...” Overall,had the conditions formethod of purging to maintain order within the lower class Victorians were dismal,party[27] and the paintings offer a chancesending enemies to acknowledgelabour camps, which Lenin had created[28]. Service supports this point of view.
    Reflection
    One issue raised relating to the methods used by historians was
    notion, claiming that “the Great Terror of limiting myself to studying just two paintings1937-8 was not a thunderclap in depth, although many of Turner’s other paintings would have been interesting sources to include. Although limiting myself to sources meant that a lotcloudless sky but the worsening of extra informationa storm that was cut outalready raging”[29] as the labour camps already contained one million people by 1933[30]. Much better use of quotes here.
    Without
    the investigation, the cutting downsupport of primary material enabled me to focusmany people the pointsGreat Purges could never have taken on such a massive scale. Getty observes that I“it was making more concisely than if more paintings had been investigated. Through this challenge, I learnt that history offers an overwhelming number of potential sources for one subject, and that historians have to choose which ones will be most relevant the ideasaverage party member that made the Yezhovshchina irrational and unpredictable”[31] as they want to presentparticipated willingly in priority, especially when taking into accountdenunciating fellow citizens for various reasons[32], such as take revenge or rise in position, and achieve their ideal of a word limit.
    Another issue manifested during
    Communist utopia. Stalin had also created a group of 600 000 excessively loyal followers, who replaced the study wasold Bolsheviks that of focusing only on one artist’s workhad been executed, to ascertain social attitudes. During this investigation, I focused only on Turner’s mindset regardingorganise the industrial revolution, butPurges. The members of the nomenklatura voluntarily spread death in hindsightorder to maintain their exclusive privileges and special rights[33].
    While the totalitarian interpretation might provide
    a more thorough understanding would have focused not only on Turner’s view, but other artists’good explanation for Stalin’s initiation of the Great Purges as a response to political opposition, the Revisionist view that period from different social backgrounds. Currently, although Turner’s art can speak for general attitudes, ithe was not the mastermind behind everything is more focused on Turner’s own ideas ofconsistent with the industrial revolution, which were influenced by his upbringing and social background. Thus, I learntscale that the dangerTerror took towards the end of narrowing the scope1930s.
    It appears that Stalin had originally initiated a top-down system
    of purging to gain absolute power. However as the lower rank party members started to participate to further their own agenda, the Purges took on an investigation isenormous scale and Stalin lost control over which individuals died. While Stalin was aware of the number of deaths, his increasing paranoia distorted his perception of the situation, leading him to believe it was necessary, and so he did not try to stop what was evidently a less complete result.massacre.
    Add Reflection
    û Role of the historian?
    û If disagreement = no historical truth?
    û Who decides, on what criteria, what is historically relevant?
    û Possible, advisable to describe historical events in unbiased way?
    û Challenges facing historians? How they differ from scientist/mathematician?

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    Appendix A
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=453&h=336}
    1.
    Twenty-First Century. USA: Harvard University press, 2013
    Essays
    Milgram, S. ‘BEHAVIORAL STUDY OF OBEDIENCE’,
    The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up
    (Ivan Ischenko, The Fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up (Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/the-fighting-temeraire-tugged-to-her-last-berth-to-be-broken-up, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    Appendix B
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=453&h=337}
    2. Rain, Steam
    Journal of Abnormal and Speed: The Great Western Railway
    (Wikiart, Rain, Steam and Speed: The Great Western Railway (Available
    Social Psychology, Vol. 67 (No. 4), 1963. Available at: http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/rain-steam-and-speed-the-great-western-railway, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    Appendix C
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=453&h=337}
    3. Lifeboat and Manby apparatus going off to a stranded vessel making signal
    http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/terrace/w1001/readings/milgram.pdf
    Stal, M. ‘Psychopathology
    of distress
    (Available
    Joseph Stalin’, Psychology, Vol. 4 (No. 9A1), Sep. 2013. Available at: http://www.artwallpaper.eu/Paintings/archives/8031/joseph-mallord-william-turner-paintings-life-boat-and-manby-apparatus-going-off-to-a-stranded-vessel-making-signal-of-distress-1831, Last accessed 9th September 2016)
    [1] Gerard Finley, Angel in the Sun: Turner’s Vision of History [book, page 139], (Available at: https://books.google.fr/books?id=uxroHjm2QAIC&pg=PA139&lpg=PA138&focus=viewport&dq=%22Rain,+Steam+and+Speed+-+The+Great+Western+Railway%22&hl=fr&output=html, Last accessed 14th July 2016)
    http://file.scirp.org/pdf/PSYCH_2013091614084923.pdf
    [1] Taken from Oxley, P. Russia 1855-1991: From Tsars to Commissars. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. p. 200

    [2] Steve Sohcot, Industrial Revolution – Classes of People (Available at: http://www.industrialrevolutionresearch.com/industrial_revolution_classes_of_people.php, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    [3] Sam Willis, HMS Indestructible: Unlocking the bloody history of the ship made famous by Turner, the Fighting Temeraire, (Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1245180/HMS-Invincible-Inside-battle-ship-famous-Turner-fighting-Temeraire.html, Last accessed 13th July 2016)
    Oxley, P. p. 191
    [3]Reed-Purvis, J. ‘The Party that Ate Itself’, History Review, Sep. 2001. p. 14

    [4] Clare Beavan, The Genius of Turner: Painting the Industrial Revolution [documentary], (Last accessed 20th July 2016)Lynch, M. Stalin’s Russia, 1924-53. London: Hodder Education, 2008. p. 62
    [5] British Broadcasting Corporation, BBC, MissionFiehn, T. and values – Inside the BBC (Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/aboutthebbc/insidethebbc/whoweare/mission_and_values, Last accessed: 5th September 2016)
    [6] Janet Thomas, The utopian
    Corin, C. Communist Russia under Lenin and dystopian visions of the Industrial Revolution in the art of Constable and Turner (Available at: https://janetthomas.wordpress.com/2011/11/18/the-utopian-and-dystopian-visions-of-the-industrial-revolution-in-the-art-of-constable-and-turner/, Last accessed 5th September 2016)Stalin. London: Hodder Murray, 2002. p. 207
    [6] Oxley, P. p. 192

    [7] Janet Thomas. Op. cit.Oxley, P. p. 192
    [8] Charlotte Higgins, A home-grown victory as Turner tops poll for best painting, (Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2005/sep/06/media.bbc, Last accessed 11th July 2016)
    [9]
    Fiehn, T. and Corin, C. p. 209
    [9] Milgram, S. ‘BEHAVIORAL STUDY OF OBEDIENCE’,
    The National Gallery, Joseph Mallord William Turner, (AvailableJournal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 67 (No. 4), 1963. Available at: https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/artists/joseph-mallord-william-turner, Last accessed 12th July 2016)http://www.columbia.edu/cu/psychology/terrace/w1001/readings/milgram.pdf
    [10] Sam Willis, op. citReed-Purvis, J. p. 14 and Fiehn, T. and Corin, C. p. 226
    [11] Clare Beavan. Op. cit.Lynch, M. p. 63
    [12] Artble, The Fighting Temeraire, (Available at: http://www.artble.com/artists/joseph_mallord_william_turner/paintings/the_fighting_temeraire, Last accessed 14th July 2016)Service, R. A History of Modern Russia: from Tsarism to the Twenty-First Century. USA: Harvard University press, 2013. p. 218
    [13] Clare Beavan. op. cit.Conquest, R. Stalin: Breaker of Nations. New York: Penguin Books, 1991. p. 114
    [14] Andrew Howson, Luddite Bicentary (Available at: http://ludditebicentenary.blogspot.fr/p/events.html, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    [15] Gerard Finley, op. cit.
    [16] Unknown, Rain, Steam,
    Fiehn, T. and Speed – Turner, (AvailableCorin, C. p. 216
    [15] Stal, M. ‘Psychopathology of Joseph Stalin’, Psychology, Vol. 4 (No. 9A1), Sep. 2013. Available
    at: http://rainsteamandspeedturner.blogspot.fr/, Last accessed 14th July 2016)
    [17] Bob Barton,
    http://file.scirp.org/pdf/PSYCH_2013091614084923.pdf
    [16] Conquest, R.
    The history of steam trainsGreat Terror: A Reassessment. New York: Oxford University Press: 2008. p. 35 & 123 and railways in Britain (Available at: http://www.historic-uk.com/HistoryUK/HistoryofBritain/Steam-trains-railways/, Last accessed 5th September 2016)Fiehn, T and Corin, C. p. 215
    [17] Lynch, M. p. 69

    [18] British National Party, Famous Britons : Arthur Wellesley, Duke of Wellington (Available at: http://www.bnp.org.uk/news/national/famous-britons-arthur-wellesley-duke-wellington, Last accessed 5th September 2016)Ibid, p. 71
    [19] Gareth Campbell, Railway ManiaShore, Z. A Sense of the 1840’s (Available at: http://www.railwaymania.co.uk/, Last accessed 5th September 2016)
    [20] Marjorie Bloy,
    Enemy: The EffectsHigh Stakes History of Railways (AvailableReading Your Enemy’s Mind. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. p. 75
    [20] Pipes, R. ‘ “Death Solves All Problems,” He Said’ The New York Times, 10 Nov. 1991. Available
    at: http://www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/railways/effects.htm, Last accessed 5th September 2016)http://www.nytimes.com/1991/11/10/books/death-solves-all-problems-he-said.html [Accessed: 17/09/2016]
    [21] Unknown, Rain, Steam, and Speed – Turner, (Available at: http://rainsteamandspeedturner.blogspot.fr/, Last accessed 14th July 2016)Lynch, M. p. 77
    [22] Artble, Joseph Mallord William Turner, (Available at: http://www.artble.com/artists/joseph_mallord_william_turner#critical_reception, Last accessed 14th July 2016)Pipes, R. Communism: A History. Random House Publishing Group, 2001. Available at:https://books.google.fr/books?redir_esc=y&id=h1jNQKLbDqoC&q=nature+of+marxism-leninism#v=snippet&q=nature%20bolshevism&f=falseNo page.
    [23] Ibid.Reed-Purvis, J. p. 15
    [24] George P. Landow, Thackeray on Turner’s “The Fighting Temeraire”, (Available at: http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/wmt/turner2.html, Last accessed 14th July 2016)Lynch, M. p. 60
    [25] Clare Beavan, op. cit.Ibid, p. 61
    [26] Steve Sohcot, op. cit.Conquest, R. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. p. 34 & 35 and Service, R. p. 128
    [27] Fiehn, T. and Corin, C. p.204
    [28] Oxley, P. p. 203
    [29] Service, R. p. 210
    [30] Reed-Purvis, J. p. 14
    [31] Getty, J. A. and Manning, R. T. Stalinist Terror: New Perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
    [32] Lynch, M. p. 77 & 79
    [33] Ibid, p. 78

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