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Wednesday, October 4

  1. page test edited ... Investigation: “We are now on the natural and inevitable road to complete the work of Davis a…
    ...
    Investigation:
    “We are now on the natural and inevitable road to complete the work of Davis and Rooney, to restore our native tongue, to get back our history… to become again the Irish men and Irish women of the distinctive Irish nation…”[1]
    These words, written by Michael Collins inwords from Collins’ The Path
    ...
    show why the topic of the Irish
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    country, with a language, a culture, and a history, and
    ...
    major events inbetween 1916-1919 that
    ...
    itself, but iscan it justified to saybe said that it was
    ...
    Collins, in his book The Path to Freedom,Freedom notes that
    ...
    the Rising of 1916 as “the
    ...
    while the Easter Rising itself accomplished very
    ...
    was necessary firstly to show
    ...
    serious about their independence and
    ...
    country, and secondly to show
    ...
    people that it was possible tothey could stand and
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    in later 1916, and throughout 1917,years the events had beenwere broadly forgotten,
    ...
    best for Ireland” [4].Ireland”[4]. He concludes by pointing outstating that the short-term trigger for
    ...
    Independence, the 1918 election of Sinn Féin in 1918,Féin, would not have happened hadwithout the Easter Rising not occurred.
    Robert
    Rising.
    Robert
    Kee in his book Ourselves Alone,Alone agreed that the Easter Rising itself was not
    ...
    to the arrest and execution of 15 leading rebel figures,rebels, but he went on to saynoted that these
    ...
    power in December 1918, saying
    ...
    the rising”[5]. These sentiments wereThis was also felt
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    Officer during the War of Independence, notesthis period, writes in his
    ...
    that the Easter Rising holds
    ...
    moment he began to feelfelt sympathy for
    ...
    for Ireland.[7] This echoes theThese sentiments were felt by many Irishmen who began to sympathise with the rebels,Irishmen, and explains
    ...
    in 1916.
    The

    These sources, however, paint a nationalistic and romanticised view on the Rising. It wasn’t until later in the twentieth century that historians looking at the War of Independence began to note that the Easter Rising happened because Britain let it. David Fitzpatrick and Keith Jeffrey explain that World War I and Britain’s attitude to Ireland during this time “provided both the opportunity and the timing for the Irish republican rising of Easter 1916. It presented a suitably violent model for political action and defined the moment when that action was likely to occur.[8]” Fitzpatrick in particular argues, “if the world had remained at peace between 1914 and 1918, the Irish would surely have been poorer, less employable, and more troubled by class and sectarian conflict.[9]” He cites the fact that Irish conscripts were forced to fight for the British in explaining why Irish nationalism saw such a rise during this period, ultimately leading to violence in the Easter Rising.
    A
    major turning
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    December 1918, with the general
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    Féin gain majority power in
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    the Dáil Éireann (Irish parliament).Éireann. The Dáil
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    the British parliamentgovernment and began to set up
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    parliament in Dublin, Ireland’s first proper attempt at self-rule.Dublin. This was
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    of the main triggers for the Irish War of Independencewar which broke
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    months later?
    Michael Collins

    Collins
    lists the achievements made
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    the new government,government: “British law
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    raised.” While he ishe’s under the
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    achieving independence in a manner free of violence and bloodshed,without violence, he pinsblames the War of Independence onBritish for the Britishwar as a
    ...
    the British forces.”[8]forces.”[10] Here Michael Collins, speaking from the perspective of someone who was present in a very prominent position, and so could see
    ...
    changing around him, clearlyhim and believes that
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    of the Irish War of Independence.
    Robert Kee also

    Kee
    notes the
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    of the general election for both Ireland and Britain.countries. “The Nationalist
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    to six seats.”[9]seats.”[11] However he criticises the Sinn Féin party for being unprepared and unorganised,unprepared, stating that
    ...
    and totally unresolved.”[10] Kee, speakingunresolved.”[12] Speaking from a historical perspective, Kee hypothesises that perhaps votes for
    ...
    Féin were in factactually votes for the broad principle of an independent Ireland and votes against the Nationalist Party.Ireland. While describing
    ...
    results as “triumphant” for Sinn Féin,“triumphant”, Kee believes
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    to the Irish War of
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    display of British violence from the British following the election, Robert Kee pinpoints
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    January 1919. The 21stThis was the
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    where Ireland formerlyformally declared independence,
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    of the World**[11]**,World**[13]**, where they
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    policemen were ambushedshot dead by IRA volunteers from Tipperary,Dan Breen and shot dead. What made thisSeumas Robinson. This attack sowas shocking for both sides was thatas the IRA volunteers in question (including Dan Breen, Seumas Robinson, Sean Treacy and Sean Hogan) were acting
    ...
    their own resolve and initiative, and that both of
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    with political prosecutions”[12].
    The aftermath of the attack saw Tipperary
    prosecutions”[14].
    Tipperary was subsequently
    declared a military area,area. Other counties followed by several other counties until the
    ...
    Strangely, though Robert Kee cites
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    to the Irish War of Independence, neither Michael Collins nor Ernie O’Malley make
    ...
    mention of this event. Thisthis. They could be because theyhave wished to
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    killers or becauseperhaps they could notcouldn’t see the event as the cause of the War in the way that Robert Kee, looking
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    picture, can.
    To answer my

    Historians writing about these events in the late twentieth and twenty-first century offer a new explanation for these bouts of violence. Peter Hart states that religion was behind these events. The policemen were, according to Hart, ambushed because they were Protestants. While furthering the explanation for the British-Irish hostilities, this viewpoint complicates this entire period, as how much of the struggle was nationalism and how much was based on religion comes into question.
    My
    starting question,question was, ‘To what
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    of Independence?’ I believe that the Easter Rising was but one of a sequence of events leading up to the outbreak of war in 1919. Michael Collins believes
    ...
    Sinn Féin startedinevitably turned the country on an inevitable route towards violence, while Robert Kee believes that the eventsambush of 21st January 1919 started
    ...
    I agree primarily with Kee
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    result of these events, becausethis event, as Sinn Féin were on the verge ofclose to achieving independence by non-violent and perfectly legitimate
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    that the Irish War of Independence was about more than violence, and that the cause of it cannot be
    ...
    one event. This being said, the Easter RisingAll of 1916this was onethe result of 700 years of the first major indications thatescalating political tensions between the Irish people were willing to stand and fight forthe British, stemming from their country,socio-economic, religious conflict and set in place a chainthe exploitation of events that inevitably ended in bloodshed,the Irish land and I see itpeople. The addition of people such as Collins to the startstruggle was what pushed things to violence, but the War for Independence itself was an inevitable product of centuries of conflict, and wasn’t caused by the fight, rather thanEaster Rising, but by the startevents of the war.
    [1] Michael
    over 800 years ago.
    [1]
    Collins, M, A Path
    [2] Ibid. p.22
    [3] Ibid. p.23
    [4] Ibid. p.25
    [5] Robert Kee, R, Ourselves Alone
    [6] Ibid. p.9
    [7] Ernie O'Malley,O’Malley, E, On Another
    ...
    p.38-61
    [8] MichaelJeffrey, K, Ireland and the Great War (2000), p. 47
    [9] Fitzpatrick, D, Homefront and Everyday Life in Horne, Our War, p. 142, (available at https://www.ria.ie/our-war-ireland-and-great-war, Last accessed 1st October 2017)
    [10]
    Collins, M, A Path
    ...
    2010) p.27
    [9] Robert

    [11]
    Kee, R, Ourselves Alone
    ...
    1989) p.52
    [10]

    [12]
    Ibid. p.53
    [11]

    [13]
    Fusio -
    ...
    August 2017)
    [12] Robert

    [14]
    Kee, R, Ourselves Alone
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    12:20 am
  2. page test edited Investigation The time period in which this investigation takes place is striking. Europe is in…

    Investigation
    The time period in which this investigation takes place is striking. Europe is in tatters after
    Investigation:
    “We are now on
    the Second World War, with unstable governments. Britain remains largely intact, but with little money, a faltering empirenatural and a new Labour government that promises radical social change. The creationinevitable road to complete the work of Davis and Rooney, to restore our native tongue, to get back our history… to become again the NHS was a momentous occasionIrish men and Irish women of the distinctive Irish nation…”[1]
    These words, written by Michael Collins
    in Britain, a new system whereThe Path to Freedom, show why the state provides free healthcare. Todaytopic of the NHS is still the causeIrish War of controversy, both medicallyIndependence was so important in the early 20th century, and politically,why it continues to be so. Ireland is its own country, with pay-capsa language, a culture, and a history, and mental health being the issues of the day. The historical perspectives used inBritish attempted to destroy this by establishing their rule. This investigation are political perspectives, especially when discussingwill examine the Labour government. The medical perspective is usedmajor events in 1916-1919 that led to analyse the successIrish War of Independence, and Ireland’s eventual freedom, whether it was the NHS. The investigation will first look atcontroversial Easter Rising of 1916, the contextelections of Europe, thenDecember 1918, the significanceambush of 21st January 1919, or a combination of these.
    The Easter Rising of 1916 is seen by many as
    the NHS, and then other Labour policies. I will then trytrigger for the events leading up to answer the question asWar, if not beginning of the War itself, but is it justified to whethersay it was the NHSdefinitive cause? Michael Collins, in his book The Path to Freedom, notes that “Armed resistance was the greatest achievement of the 1945-51 government.
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=690&h=140} Image result
    indispensable factor in our struggle for Warsaw post WW2In orderfreedom. It was never possible for us to be militarily strong, but we could be strong enough to make England uncomfortable.” He also refers to appreciate the achievementsRising of 1916 as “the fruit”[2]. Collins makes it clear that while the 1945-51 Labour government,Easter Rising itself accomplished very little, it is vitalwas necessary firstly to understand Europe post-WW2. The cities of central Europeshow the British that Ireland were destroyed, from Warsaw which had been devastated byserious about their independence and willing to risk their lives for their country, and secondly to show the Nazis initial advance,Irish people that it was possible to Dresdenstand and fight for what they believed in. He goes on to say that “The real importance of the Rising of 1916 did not become apparent until 1918”[3], which he justifies by saying that although in later 1916, and throughout 1917, the events had been an inferno whenbroadly forgotten, “The Easter Week Rising pointed out the allies dropped more than 2500 tons of explosives onroad”, and “the people grew to put their trust in the city (Lowe, 2013). Indeed, whilst Britain was one of the few European countriesnew policy, and to escape such destruction,believe that the men who stood for it too suffered. The Germans had dropped more than 50,000 tonswould do their best for Ireland” [4]. He concludes by pointing out that the short-term trigger for the War of bombs on Britain;Independence, the infamous bombingelection of Coventry created a new German word ‘Coventrate’, meaningSinn Féin in 1918, would not have happened had the Easter Rising not occurred.
    Robert Kee in his book Ourselves Alone, agreed that the Easter Rising itself was not as successful as hoped, leading
    to destroy utterly (Lowe, 2013). Whilst ‘Savage Continent’ has many interesting piecesthe arrest and execution of information, however, due15 leading rebel figures, but he went on to its narrative-like structure,say that these can often be hard to obtain. The focus on Europe as a whole also limits its usefulnessexecutions were what put Sinn Féin in this investigation.
    Warsaw c. 1950
    The political landscape
    power in December 1918, saying “the working classes of post-WW2 EuropeDublin was full of anger,becoming ‘extremely bitter’ over the executions, ‘even amongst those who had no sympathy whatever with questions on where responsibility should lie. Social change and reform was ablaze across the European continent,Sinn Feiners, or with democratic leaders such as Charles De Gaulle fearful of the sudden rise ofrising”[5]. These sentiments were also felt in America, and Kee quotes the left. It wasBritish Ambassador in this climate that Britain chose a radical Labour Government.
    After
    Washington: “The present wave of fury sweeping through Irish America originated with the shocking1 victoryexecutions and not with the rising…”[6]
    Ernie O’Malley, an IRA Officer during the War
    of LabourIndependence, notes in his book On Another Man’s Wound that the 1945 election,Easter Rising holds great personal importance as the nation waitedmoment he began to see what would happen. I will argue that whilst not all decisions were successful, many were, especially infeel sympathy for the economic circumstances. The Labour cabinet atrebels, and switched sides to fight for Ireland.[7] This echoes the time covered a wide range on the political spectrum, from the quiet Prime Minister Clement Atlee,sentiments felt by many Irishmen who began to Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin, chargedsympathise with the organisation of factories during the war effort. And of course Nye Bevan, perhaps the most radicalrebels, and fierce socialist, often referred to asexplains the fathersudden wave of patriotism that swept through Ireland in 1916.
    The major turning point came in December 1918, with
    the NHS.
    Many would argue
    general election that saw Sinn Féin gain majority power in Ireland, and the NHS was the most significant achievementcreation of the Labour Government. Labour’s landslide in 1945 provided clear leadership. However, many were uncertain when Bevan was appointed as Health Minister dueDáil Éireann (Irish parliament). The Dáil refused to his youthrecognise the British parliament and hard left-wing views. He provedbegan to be decisive, and within weeks he was drawingset up plans for nationalisation, a previously unconsidered option. Itan independent parliament in Dublin, Ireland’s first proper attempt at self-rule. This was his plan for regionalisation which was most radical, as this allowed hospital catchment areas to normally work separately and so efficiently. Nonetheless they could also workmet with neighbouring health ‘districts’ when necessary (Webster, 2002). Bevan’s visionanger from Britain, but was explicit and clear, “Everyone-rich or poor, man, woman or child-can use it or any partone of it… You are all payingthe main triggers for it,” However, the process was not unopposed. In particularIrish War of Independence which broke out mere months later?
    Michael Collins lists
    the British Medical Association fought hard, fearing that doctors would become little more than state servicemen (Webster, 2002). Eventually agreements were reached, andachievements made by the NHSnew government, “British law was launched ongradually superseded. Sinn Féin Courts were set up… Volunteer police were enrolled… A loan of £400,000 was raised.” While he is under the 5th July 1948. Whilst no new doctorsimpression that Ireland were hired (Rivett, 1998), healthcareclose to achieving independence in the UK changed irrevocably. Health became the problema manner free of violence and bloodshed, he pins the nation, notWar of Independence on the individual. WithinBritish as a few short years medical knowledge advanced leaps and bounds. Ratesresult of Infectious diseases decreased rapidly, with deaths from tuberculosis falling from 23175 in 1948this election, stating “At first the British were content to 13806 in 1951, cases of smallpox declined rapidly as well (Rivett, 1998). One area that significantly changed was Ophthalmology, with free spectacles opening up eyesight for many. Because GPs had been unwilling to joinridicule the NHSnew Government. Then, growing alarmed at its increasing authority, attempts were made to begin with, it was unsure of how many would join. However, within a month 90%check its activities by wholesale political arrests. The final phase of the population was with an NHS GP,struggle had begun.” He goes on to say “The only disorder and bloodshed were the numberwork of GPs in the NHSBritish forces.”[8] Here Michael Collins, speaking from the perspective of someone who was around 18000 (Rivett, 1998). They were allowed special privileges, withpresent in a contract for service, not of,very prominent position, and a higher pay. The ‘From Cradle to Grave’ book provides in detail facts concerningso could see the NHS which are extremely precise and useful. The government leaflet released shortly aftersituation changing around him, clearly believes that this election was the launchcause of the NHS states that “The National Health Service has been launched – with remarkable smoothness.” (MinistryIrish War of Health, 1948)
    It could
    Independence.
    Robert Kee
    also be argued thatnotes the significanceimplications of the project has been exaggerated over the years, as the NHS has become part of the national psyche,general election for both Ireland and so people will highlight its successes over its failures. In many ways, it was not as innovative as others have said. Before it launched thereBritain. “The Nationalist Home Rule Party, which had been a large healthcare systemheld sixty-eight seats in place, though poorly organised. In particular the Liberals from 1906House of Commons, was now reduced to 1914 had put in place much ofsix seats.”[9] However he criticises the ground workSinn Féin party for future schemes2. However, war changes everything. With imminent heavy loss of civilian life, hospitals were quicklybeing unprepared and effectively coordinated into an Emergency Medical Service in regional administrations. The programme was a success, and there were calls for a National Hospital Service (Webster, 2002). This indicatesunorganised, stating that under“The ambiguity of the movement, particularly where the pressurerole of war, a system had already been created which provided effective healthcare,Collins, Brugha and that the NHS simply built on those foundations. Indeed the government pamphlet admitsother militant Volunteers was concerned, was largely concealed, and totally unresolved.”[10] Kee, speaking from a historical perspective, hypothesises that even at launch, thereperhaps votes for Sinn Féin were issues “There is an urgent needin fact votes for more nurses; hospitals are shortthe broad principle of staffed beds” (Ministry of Health, 1948). This government leaflet was a primary source,an independent Ireland and yet steered clear of presenting only positives, but also of challenges ahead, indicating a good honesty onvotes against the government’s part.
    However, there were many other achievements by
    Nationalist Party. While describing the government apart fromresults as “triumphant” for Sinn Féin, Kee believes that the NHS, such as state insurance, nationalisationelection did not directly lead to the Irish War of Independence, but instead influenced the Bankevents that did.
    Whereas Collins notes a general display
    of England,violence from the railways and the resource industries3. It disarmed the large and costly military forces, withdrew British rule from India, built 700,000 desperately needed council houses and repurposed factories. These achievements were allfollowing the more impressive given that Britain was suffering fromelection, Robert Kee pinpoints the worst economic crisis ever4, with huge loans to Americaexact event that needed paying off, and an economy that had been converted into one of total war. The historian Correlli Barnett describedbegan the British as having “the psychology ofconflict, on the victor although their material circumstances approximated more to those of a loser.”
    Successful policies included
    21st January 1919. The 21st was the necessary reduction ofday where Ireland formerly declared independence, which the armed forces. By 1946, 840 British warships had been decommissioned (Marr, 2007),First Dáil did in a staggering amount consideringMessage to the first rumblingsFree Nations of the Cold War had started. Whilst Britain still claimedWorld**[11]**, where they stated “Ireland calls upon every free nation to be a superpower, there was no feasible wayuphold her national claim to continuecomplete independence as before with her immense economic sacrifice and abandonment byan Irish Republic against the Americans. Therefore, Attlee had to do what was necessary for survival, a difficult decision to make. State insurance also proved to be a successful scheme5. ‘A Historyarrogant pretensions of Modern Britain’,England founded in a similar manner to ‘Savage Continent’, is primarily focused onfraud.” However, later that day, two Royal Irish Constabulary policemen were ambushed by IRA volunteers from Tipperary, and shot dead. What made this attack so shocking for both sides was that the narrative,IRA volunteers in question (including Dan Breen, Seumas Robinson, Sean Treacy and whilst it organises its different sections effectivelySean Hogan) were acting on their own resolve and succinctly, the journalistic styleinitiative, and that both of Marr is apparent.
    However, some significant decisions
    the victims were “very popular locally and had negative consequences. For example, whilstnever had any connection with political prosecutions”[12].
    The aftermath of
    the British withdrawal from Indiaattack saw Tipperary declared a military area, followed by several other counties until the entire country was in a state of impending war. Strangely, though Robert Kee cites this as a key event in the right thingbuild-up to do, it caused extreme trauma, with some estimates putting the death toll at 1 million (Marr, 2007). The botched and hurried splittingIrish War of India led to displacement on a massive scale, and a stain upon Britain’s relatively peaceful decolonisation process.Independence, neither Michael Collins nor Ernie O’Malley make any mention of this event. This could be arguedbecause they wished to bedisassociate themselves from the most significant achievement of the government, due to its wide-ranging effects, even if it didkillers or because they could not affect Britainsee the event as much. Not all nationalisation worked either, with the Bankcause of England being relatively unchanged, and the railways receiving little funding, with many tracks falling into disrepair.
    In conclusion, outside of
    War in the contextway that Robert Kee, looking back to see the bigger picture, can.
    To answer my starting question, ‘To what extent did the Easter Rising
    of 1916 cause the period it might appearIrish War of Independence?’ I believe that whilst the NHSEaster Rising was but one of a great achievement, it was not necessarilysequence of events leading up to the most significant, especiallyoutbreak of war in comparison to1919. Michael Collins believes that the partitionelection of India. However, consideringSinn Féin started the circumstances, i.e. Europe’s destitution andcountry on an inevitable route towards violence, while Robert Kee believes that the effectevents of 21st January 1919 started the wararmed conflict. I agree primarily with Kee in that the armed conflict was a direct result of these events, because Sinn Féin were on Britain’s economy, the factverge of achieving independence by non-violent and perfectly legitimate means, however I realise that a fully nationalised healthcare system could be implemented, survivedthe Irish War of Independence was about more than violence, and still continues today is a testamentthat the cause of it cannot be pinned down to one event. This being said, the foresight, dedication and wisdomEaster Rising of 1916 was one of those involved. Therefore the NHS is stillfirst major indications that the greatestIrish people were willing to stand and most significant achievementfight for their country, and set in place a chain of events that inevitably ended in bloodshed, and I see it as the 1945-51 Labour government, or indeed any Labour government since. start of the fight, rather than the start of the war.
    [1] Michael Collins, A Path to Freedom (EZReads Publications, 2010) p.52
    [2] Ibid. p.22
    [3] Ibid. p.23
    [4] Ibid. p.25
    [5] Robert Kee, Ourselves Alone (London: Penguin, 1989) p.4
    [6] Ibid. p.9
    [7] Ernie O'Malley, On Another Man's Wound ([Dublin]: Anvil Books, 1990) p.38-61
    [8] Michael Collins, A Path to Freedom (EZReads Publications, 2010) p.27
    [9] Robert Kee, Ourselves Alone (London: Penguin, 1989) p.52
    [10] Ibid. p.53
    [11] Fusio - http://www.fusio.net, DIFP - Documents on IRISH FOREIGN POLICY (Available at: http://www.difp.ie/viewdoc.asp?DocID=2, Last accessed 31st August 2017)
    [12] Robert Kee, Ourselves Alone (London: Penguin, 1989) p.58

    (view changes)
    12:20 am

Tuesday, October 3

  1. page test edited Investigation ... after the second world war, in poverty and Second World War, with unstabl…

    Investigation
    ...
    after the second world war, in poverty andSecond World War, with unstable
    ...
    medically and politically.politically, with pay-caps and mental health being the issues of the day. The historical perspectives presentused in this investigation are political
    ...
    Labour government. And theThe medical perspective is used to analyse
    ...
    NHS. The essayinvestigation will first
    ...
    Europe, then other Labour government achievements,the significance of the NHS, and then the NHS.other Labour policies. I will then conclude withtry to answer the question as to whether the
    ...
    understand Europe post World War Two.post-WW2. The cities
    ...
    bombs on Britain, indeedBritain; the infamous
    ...
    word ‘Coventrate’, meaning to destroy
    ...
    (Lowe, 2013). Whilst ‘Savage Continent’ has many interesting pieces of information, however, due to its narrative-like structure, these can often be hard to obtain. The focus on Europe as a whole also limits its usefulness in this investigation.
    Warsaw c. 1950
    ...
    the left. InIt was in this climate that Britain chose
    ...
    Labour Government.
    The book, “Savage Continent”, has proved itself to be a worthy source of information within this section. The origin, and purpose of this book is as a means to illuminate people about a relatively unknown period for modern Britons, Europe shortly after WW2. Its content is well broken down into different sections, such as Physical destruction, migration and famine. However, it follows a narrative like structure, so facts are harder to obtain.

    After the shockingshocking1 victory of
    ...
    Atlee, to foreign secretaryForeign Secretary Ernest Bevin,
    ...
    radical and fiercelyfierce socialist, often accountedreferred to as the
    ...
    NHS.
    Many were the achievements of the government other than the NHS, such as state insurance, nationalisation of the bank of England, the railways and the resource industries. It broke-down the large and costly military forces, withdrew from India, built desperately needed homes and repurposed factories. And to top it all off, Britain was suffering from the worst economic crisis ever, with huge loans to Americawould argue that needed paying off, and an economy that had been utterly transformed into one of total war.
    First, come changes that did work. The break-down of
    the armed forcesNHS was necessary, by 1946 840 British warships had been decommissioned (Marr, 2008), a staggering amount considering the first rumblingsmost significant achievement of the cold war had started. Whilst Britain still claimed to be a superpower, there was no feasible way to continue as before with her immense economic sacrifice and abandonment by the Americans. Therefore, Attlee had to do what was necessary for survival, a difficult decision to make. State insurance also proved to be a successful scheme.
    However, some decisions that should have worked, were tainted. For example, whilst the British withdrawal from India was the right thing to do, it caused extreme trauma, with some estimates putting the death toll at 1 million (Marr, 2008). The botched and hurried splitting of India led to displacement on a massive scale, and a stain upon Britain’s relatively peaceful decolonisation process. Not all nationalisation worked either, with the Bank of England being relatively unchanged, and the railways receiving little funding, with many tracks falling into disrepair.
    The source mainly used in this section was “A History of Modern Britain” by Andrew Marr, the origin and purpose of which is to be a history book that provides a quick and relatively narrative based description of Britain post-1945. The content of the book is easy to access and is well-written. However, one draw-back is that because it has a narrative structure, it is harder to obtain the pure facts when compared to a text book.
    That now brings us to the focus of the investigation, the NHS itself. From its outset, the NHS became known for the strong political affiliation it had. However, before there had been a large healthcare system in place, though poorly organised. However, war changes everything. With imminent heavy loss of civilian life, hospitals were quickly and effectively coordinated into an Emergency Medical Service in regional administrations. The programme was a success, and there were calls for a National Hospital Service (Webster, 2002).
    Labour Government. Labour’s landslide
    ...
    clear leadership. HoweverHowever, many were
    ...
    appointed as health ministerHealth Minister due to
    ...
    He proved to be decisive, and
    ...
    for nationalisation, ana previously unconsidered option.
    ...
    most radical, but was a wise move, as itthis allowed hospital catchment areas of catchment to normally work separately and so efficiently, yetefficiently. Nonetheless they could also work with
    ...
    health ‘districts’ ifwhen necessary (Webster,
    ...
    explicit and clearclear, “Everyone-rich or
    ...
    for it,” HoweverHowever, the process didwas not go unfought.unopposed. In particular
    ...
    (Webster, 2002). But eventuallyEventually agreements were
    ...
    was launched 5on the 5th July 1948.
    This section will discuss primarily the standard of healthcare in the NHS at launch, in order to evaluate its worth in comparison to other Labour projects.
    Whilst no
    ...
    individual. Within a few short years
    ...
    One area that significantly changed
    ...
    higher pay. As a conclusion to this section I shall quote FromThe ‘From Cradle to Grave “MuchGrave’ book provides in detail facts concerning the NHS which are extremely precise and useful. The government leaflet released shortly after the launch of the NHS states that “The National Health Service has been launched – with remarkable smoothness.” (Ministry of Health, 1948)
    It could also be argued that the significance of the project has been exaggerated over the years, as the NHS has become part of the national psyche, and so people will highlight its successes over its failures. In many ways, it was not as innovative as others have said. Before it launched there
    had been donea large healthcare system in place, though poorly organised. In particular the Liberals from 1906 to better1914 had put in place much of the conditionsground work for future schemes2. However, war changes everything. With imminent heavy loss of medical care.”
    The two sources used
    civilian life, hospitals were quickly and effectively coordinated into an Emergency Medical Service in this sectionregional administrations. The programme was “From Cradle to Grave”a success, and “The political historythere were calls for a National Hospital Service (Webster, 2002). This indicates that under the pressure of war, a system had already been created which provided effective healthcare, and that the NHS”. The originNHS simply built on those foundations. Indeed the government pamphlet admits that even at launch, there were issues “There is an urgent need for more nurses; hospitals are short of staffed beds” (Ministry of Health, 1948). This government leaflet was a primary source, and purposeyet steered clear of “From Cradlepresenting only positives, but also of challenges ahead, indicating a good honesty on the government’s part.
    However, there were many other achievements by the government apart from the NHS, such as state insurance, nationalisation of the Bank of England, the railways and the resource industries3. It disarmed the large and costly military forces, withdrew British rule from India, built 700,000 desperately needed council houses and repurposed factories. These achievements were all the more impressive given that Britain was suffering from the worst economic crisis ever4, with huge loans
    to Grave” isAmerica that needed paying off, and an economy that had been converted into one of total war. The historian Correlli Barnett described the British as having “the psychology of the victor although their material circumstances approximated more to providethose of a run-downloser.”
    Successful policies included the necessary reduction
    of the historyarmed forces. By 1946, 840 British warships had been decommissioned (Marr, 2007), a staggering amount considering the first rumblings of the NHSCold War had started. Whilst Britain still claimed to be a superpower, there was no feasible way to continue as before with her immense economic sacrifice and abandonment by the Americans. Therefore, Attlee had to do what was necessary for survival, a more medical focus, whereas “TPHOTH”difficult decision to make. State insurance also proved to be a successful scheme5. ‘A History of Modern Britain’, in a similar manner to ‘Savage Continent’, is primarily focused on the political side. Both were very useful, however “From Cradle to Grave”narrative, and whilst it organises its different sections effectively and succinctly, the journalistic style of Marr is apparent.
    However, some significant decisions had negative consequences. For example, whilst the British withdrawal from India
    was often quite hardthe right thing to digest easily,do, it caused extreme trauma, with some estimates putting the death toll at 1 million (Marr, 2007). The botched and “TPHOTH” suffered fromhurried splitting of India led to displacement on a similar issue.massive scale, and a stain upon Britain’s relatively peaceful decolonisation process. This could be argued to be the most significant achievement of the government, due to its wide-ranging effects, even if it did not affect Britain as much. Not all nationalisation worked either, with the Bank of England being relatively unchanged, and the railways receiving little funding, with many tracks falling into disrepair.
    In conclusion,
    ...
    it was not without its flaws and may not necessarily be the greatest achievement ofmost significant, especially in comparison to the Labour government.partition of India. However, if you take into account the context ofconsidering the period,circumstances, i.e. Europe’s
    ...
    and the crippling effect of
    ...
    war on the BritishBritain’s economy, the
    ...
    be implemented, survived, thrivedsurvived and still continues today is a
    ...
    to the effort that was put in.foresight, dedication and wisdom of those involved. Therefore the NHS is by farstill the greatest and most relevantsignificant achievement of
    ...
    1945-51 Labour government.government, or indeed any Labour government since.
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  2. page test edited Identification Investigation The time period in which this investigation takes place is striki…

    IdentificationInvestigation
    The time period in which this investigation takes place is striking. Europe is in tatters after the second world war, in poverty
    and evaluationwith unstable governments. Britain remains largely intact, but with little money, a faltering empire and a new Labour government that promises radical social change. The creation of sources
    This essay will investigate
    the question “To what extentNHS was a momentous occasion in Britain, a new system where the creation ofstate provides free healthcare. Today the NHS is still the most significant achievementcause of controversy, both medically and politically. The historical perspectives present are political perspectives, especially when discussing the British Labour Governmentgovernment. And the medical perspective to analyse the success of 1945-51?”the NHS. The periodessay will be from 1945 – 1951, the government’s length. This investigation will utilise several sources, including ‘Savage Continent’ (Lowe, 2013) which will providefirst look at the context of the essay in Europe, then other Labour government achievements, and ‘A History of Modern Britain’ (Marr, 2007), whichthen the NHS. I will describethen conclude with whether the NHS was the greatest achievement of the 1945-51 Labour government. The National Health Service A Political History (Webster, 2002) will also be used. In
    {http://history-wiki.wikispaces.com/site/embedthumbnail/placeholder?w=690&h=140} Image result for Warsaw post WW2In
    order to answerappreciate the question, we must define significance. Itachievements of the 1945-51 Labour government, it is definedvital to understand Europe post World War Two. The cities of central Europe were destroyed, from Warsaw which had been devastated by the Nazis initial advance, to Dresden which had been an inferno when the allies dropped more than 2500 tons of explosives on the city (Lowe, 2013). Indeed, whilst Britain was one of the few European countries to escape such destruction, it too suffered. The Germans had dropped more than 50,000 tons of bombs on Britain, indeed the infamous bombing of Coventry created a new German word ‘Coventrate’, to destroy utterly (Lowe, 2013).
    Warsaw c. 1950
    The political landscape of post-WW2 Europe was full of anger, with questions on where responsibility should lie. Social change and reform was ablaze across the European continent, with democratic leaders such
    as scopeCharles De Gaulle fearful of impact (i.e. how many people affected)the sudden rise of the left. In this climate Britain chose a radical Labour Government.
    The book, “Savage Continent”, has proved itself to be a worthy source of information within this section. The origin,
    and for how long. Itpurpose of this book is importantas a means to note that significance does not necessarily entail positivity.
    The first source
    illuminate people about a relatively unknown period for evaluationmodern Britons, Europe shortly after WW2. Its content is “From Cradlewell broken down into different sections, such as Physical destruction, migration and famine. However, it follows a narrative like structure, so facts are harder to Grave Fifty yearsobtain.
    After the shocking victory
    of Labour in the NHS” (Rivett, 1997), written by Geoffrey Rivett in 1997, produced1945 election, the nation waited to see what would happen. I will argue that whilst not all decisions were successful, many were, especially in the UK aseconomic circumstances. The Labour cabinet at the time covered a detailed look intowide range on the NHSpolitical spectrum, from 1948the quiet Prime Minister Clement Atlee, to 1998. This source is very relevantforeign secretary Ernest Bevin, charged with the organisation of factories during the war effort. And of course Nye Bevan, perhaps the most radical and fiercely socialist, often accounted as the father of the NHS.
    Many were the achievements of the government other than the NHS, such as state insurance, nationalisation of the bank of England, the railways and the resource industries. It broke-down the large and costly military forces, withdrew from India, built desperately needed homes and repurposed factories. And to top
    it provides a focus onall off, Britain was suffering from the advancementsworst economic crisis ever, with huge loans to America that needed paying off, and an economy that had been utterly transformed into one of clinical techniques, thereby givingtotal war.
    First, come changes that did work. The break-down of the armed forces was necessary, by 1946 840 British warships had been decommissioned (Marr, 2008),
    a good sensestaggering amount considering the first rumblings of the cold war had started. Whilst Britain still claimed to be a superpower, there was no feasible way to continue as before with her immense economic sacrifice and abandonment by the Americans. Therefore, Attlee had to do what was necessary for survival, a difficult decision to make. State insurance also proved to be a successful scheme.
    However, some decisions that should have worked, were tainted. For example, whilst
    the NHSBritish withdrawal from India was like at the time.right thing to do, it caused extreme trauma, with some estimates putting the death toll at 1 million (Marr, 2008). The originsbotched and hurried splitting of India led to displacement on a massive scale, and a stain upon Britain’s relatively peaceful decolonisation process. Not all nationalisation worked either, with the Bank of England being relatively unchanged, and the railways receiving little funding, with many tracks falling into disrepair.
    The
    source is as a book whosemainly used in this section was “A History of Modern Britain” by Andrew Marr, the origin and purpose of which is to instructbe a history book that provides a quick and teach people about the liferelatively narrative based description of Britain post-1945. The content of the NHS. Itbook is in many ways an extremely valuable book, as iteasy to access and is highly regarded by several notable institutions. The British Medical Journal, an extremely well regarded journal says, “Rivettwell-written. However, one draw-back is that because it has accomplished a daunting task… Itnarrative structure, it is harder to obtain the only bookpure facts when compared to provide both a surveytext book.
    That now brings us to the focus
    of policy changethe investigation, the NHS itself. From its outset, the NHS became known for the strong political affiliation it had. However, before there had been a large healthcare system in place, though poorly organised. However, war changes everything. With imminent heavy loss of civilian life, hospitals were quickly and effectively coordinated into an Emergency Medical Service in regional administrations. The programme was a full accountsuccess, and there were calls for a National Hospital Service (Webster, 2002). Labour’s landslide in 1945 provided clear leadership. However many were uncertain when Bevan was appointed as health minister due to his youth and hard left-wing views. He proved decisive, and within weeks he was drawing up plans for nationalisation, an unconsidered option. It was his plan for regionalisation which was most radical, but was a wise move, as it allowed hospital areas of professionalcatchment to work separately and clinical developments.” Oneso efficiently, yet could work with neighbouring health ‘districts’ if necessary (Webster, 2002). Bevan’s vision was explicit and clear “Everyone-rich or poor, man, woman or child-can use it or any part of it… You are all paying for it,” However the few limitations thatprocess did not go unfought. In particular the book has isBritish Medical Association fought hard, fearing that doctors would become little more than state servicemen (Webster, 2002). But eventually agreements were reached, and the NHS was launched 5 July 1948.
    This section will discuss primarily the standard of healthcare in the NHS at launch, in order to evaluate
    its first chapter covers from 1948 – 57, which is notworth in comparison to other Labour projects. Whilst no new doctors were hired (Rivett, 1998), healthcare in the timescale which I am investigating, however this isUK changed irrevocably. Health became the problem of the nation, not a major limitation.
    The second source for evaluation is a leaflet (Ministry
    of Health, 1948) produced by the Governmentindividual. Within short years medical knowledge advanced leaps and bounds. Rates of Infectious diseases decreased rapidly, with deaths from tuberculosis falling from 23175 in 1948 explainingto 13806 in 1951, cases of smallpox declined rapidly as well (Rivett, 1998). One area significantly changed was Ophthalmology, with free spectacles opening up eyesight for many. Because GPs had been unwilling to join the detailsNHS to begin with, it was unsure of how many would join. However, within a month 90% of the NHS. This ispopulation was with an NHS GP, and the number of GPs in the NHS was around 18000 (Rivett, 1998). They were allowed special privileges, with a primary source, produced atcontract for service, not of, and a higher pay. As a conclusion to this section I shall quote From Cradle to Grave “Much had been done to better the time,conditions of medical care.”
    The two sources used in this section was “From Cradle to Grave”
    and so will provide insight into views, making it highly relevant.“The political history of the NHS”. The origin and purpose of the source is as an information leaflet, whose purpose“From Cradle to Grave” is to inform people aboutprovide a run-down of the NHS. Ithistory of the NHS with a more medical focus, whereas “TPHOTH” is therefore valuablefocused on the political side. Both were very useful, however “From Cradle to this investigation asGrave” was often quite hard to digest easily, and “TPHOTH” suffered from a similar issue.
    In conclusion, outside of the context of the period
    it demonstrates whatmight appear that whilst the governmentNHS was telling people ata great achievement, it was not without its flaws and may not necessarily be the time aboutgreatest achievement of the NHS.Labour government. However, its limitations are because it isif you take into account the context of the period, i.e. Europe’s destitution and the crippling effect of the war on the British economy, the fact that a primary sourcefully nationalised healthcare system could be implemented, survived, thrived and as itstill continues is a testament to the effort that was producedput in. Therefore the NHS is by far the Government, it focuses on the positivesgreatest and most relevant achievement of the NHS.1945-51 Labour government.
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  3. page test edited Identification and evaluation of sources ... – 1951, as this was the government’s ... inclu…

    Identification and evaluation of sources
    ...
    – 1951, as this was the government’s
    ...
    including ‘Savage continent’Continent’ (Lowe, 2013) which will
    ...
    of Modern Britain’,Britain’ (Marr, 2007), which will
    ...
    Labour government.
    The
    The National Health Service A Political History (Webster, 2002) will also be used. In order to answer the question, we must define significance. It is defined as scope of impact (i.e. how many people affected) and for how long. It is important to note that significance does not necessarily entail positivity.
    The
    first source
    ...
    of the NHS”,NHS” (Rivett, 1997), written by
    ...
    UK as an in detaila detailed look into
    ...
    a book in which itswhose purpose is
    ...
    about the NHS through its life.life of the NHS. It is
    ...
    evaluation is “the National Health Service A Political History new edition”, writtena leaflet (Ministry of Health, 1948) produced by Charles Webster in 2002, producedthe Government in 1948 explaining the UK by Oxford University press. Unlikedetails of the lastNHS. This is a primary source, this book is dedicated purely to political history,produced at the time, and so will provide insight into views, making it relevant to the political aspects of this investigation.highly relevant. The origin of thisthe source is also as a book,an information leaflet, whose purpose is to detailinform people about the political history of the NHS, including importantly its inception.NHS. It too is a highly regarded book, written by a Senior Research Fellow at All souls College, Oxford. With the Journal of the Royal college of Physician commenting on the second edition saying that “The first two chapters, which describe the origins of the NHS, and take the story uptherefore valuable to 1979, remainthis investigation as it demonstrates what the same – Dr Webster is too good an historian to revise for revision’s sake.” A possible limitation ofgovernment was telling people at the book is that, according totime about the Independent,NHS. However, its limitations are because it is difficult fora primary source and as it was produced by the general reader “notGovernment, it focuses on the ideal guide forpositives of the general reader. There is too much management structure, too many acronyms.” However I do not believe this will be a major issue.NHS.
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  4. page test edited Investigation “The woman who had taught a nation what it was like to have courage…”[1] put, “th…

    Investigation
    “The woman who had taught a nation what it was like to have courage…”[1] put, “the stamp of good breeding
    Identification and respectability on a fortune…”[2] by marrying JFK and became “…the most unforgettably regal of twentieth-century first ladies…”[3] faced with one rival: Eleanor Roosevelt. This investigationevaluation of sources
    This essay will investigate
    the question remains relevant today as“To what extent was the rolecreation of First Lady lacks official definition. Particular interest surrounds the adoptionNHS the most significant achievement of the role by various womenBritish Labour Government of 1945-51?” The period will be from 1945 – 1951, as their behaviour gives clues on their husband’s future actions and they are given power to influence opinion. The main historical perspectives surrounding this question debate whether these First Ladies were politically significant to their husbands, or merely political liabilities.was the government’s length. This essay seeks to analyse similarities and differences between them, and concludes that changes triggered by them outweighinvestigation will utilise several sources, including ‘Savage continent’ which will provide the criticisms they received.
    Indisputably, both women were
    context of political significance to their husbands,the essay in termsEurope, and ‘A History of comparison they shared similar achievements concerning interactions withModern Britain’, which will describe the public. Both were well-liked women of their time and place: Eleanor Roosevelt1945-51 Labour government.
    The first source for evaluation
    is classed as one“From Cradle to Grave Fifty years of the most admired womenNHS”, written by Geoffrey Rivett in 1997, produced in American history[4] whilst, “Jackie fit many people’s definition of what it was to be beautiful”[5] according to Kuhn’s hagiographical viewpoint, that nevertheless clearly presents the attitudes ofUK as an in detail look into the time. Their popularity ledNHS from 1948 to 1998. This source is very relevant as it provides a transformation into important role models: Americans applauded Eleanor Roosevelt for her activismfocus on behalfthe advancements of social issues and political influence, and Jackie became an international icon of style and sophistication (see Appendix A), admired by many for her elegant fashion sense. Her status asclinical techniques, thereby giving a trendsetter allowed her to influence designers, magazines, newspapers andgood sense of what the public.
    Moreover, both consolidated their public image through various similar interests, such as travel and
    NHS was like at the arts. Jackie’s cultural interest and fluencytime. The origins of the source is as a book in languages made her worldwide a popular travelling ambassador who used diplomatic occasions to express core national values. She not only accompanied her husband on tripswhich its purpose is to Europeinstruct and Latin America, where she successfully promotedteach people about the Alliance for ProgressNHS through her eloquent speechesits life. It is in Spanish (see Appendix A), she travelledmany ways an extremely valuable book, as her husbands’ representative to India, Italy and Pakistan.it is highly regarded by several notable institutions. The warm reception in Paris, 1961, prompted JFK to famously state, “I do not think it altogether appropriate to introduce myself…I amBritish Medical Journal, an extremely well regarded journal says, “Rivett has accomplished a daunting task… It is the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedyonly book to Paris, and I have enjoyed it.”[6] Similarly, Eleanor travelled extensively, approximately 300 000 miles[7] in Franklin’s first two terms, reporting to her husband after visiting government institutions and relief projects. Furthermore,provide both women showed great cultural interest: Eleanor supported government-funded programmes for artistsa survey of policy change and Jackie, “…saw her job as nothing less than raising the profile of the creative arts in America”[8], personally intervening to preserve the historical identity of the famous Lafayette Square. Beyond the border, she helped rescue ancient Egyptian temples threatened by floodwaters from the Aswan Dam.
    Nevertheless, in terms of contrast both demonstrated decisive differences in their interactions with the media. In February 1962, Jackie gave
    a televised tour (see Appendix A), watched by 56 million[9] viewers,full account of the White House restoration, for which she was awarded an honorary Emmy Award. However, “…Jackie’s attitude to reporters had always been that they should be told as little as possible”[10]professional and the restorationclinical developments.” One of the White House was, “the only thing of hersfew limitations that belonged to the public.”[11] Conversely, Eleanor was the book has is that its first and only First Lady to hold hundreds of press conferences for female reporters at a time when women were typically barredchapter covers from them (see Appendix B). Her newspaper column entitled, “My Day”, became1948 – 57, which is not the most popular column, written from 1935 until her death in 1962 to communicate her positions on various political/social issues (see Appendix B). By January 1934 she had received 300 000 letters[12] according to Historynet.com, a website that gives access to a wide range of information buttimescale which I am investigating, however this is not fully reliable and accurate, and opened a valuable discussion forum that helped her husband propelmajor limitation.
    The second source for evaluation is “the National Health Service A Political History new edition”, written by Charles Webster in 2002, produced in
    the New Deal agenda.
    Furthermore, Jackie Kennedy played a significant role
    UK by crucially restoringOxford University press. Unlike the White House and redefining the symbols of the presidency, whereas Eleanor Roosevelt focused onlast source, this book is dedicated purely to political affairs. She soughthistory, making it relevant to make the White House, “the most perfect house in the United States”[13], stating, “It must be restored – and that has nothing to do with decoration. That is a questionpolitical aspects of scholarship”[14]. In the Oval Office, a desk made from the timbersthis investigation. The origin of the HMS Resolute**[15]** was placed and remains today. To avoid the controversial use of public money, the White House Historical Association was established and the first official White House guidebook published in 1962, with all profits from the sales being used as funding. Within ten months of publication, after having chosen the photographs, layout and text herself, 500 000 copies were sold[16]. The JFK Presidential Library and Museumthis source is usefulalso as a sourcebook, whose purpose is to gain accurate information aboutdetail the Kennedy’s, but it exaggerates the Camelot imagepolitical history of JFK consequently distorting facts. She “designed the symbols of presidential power still used today”[17], even redesigning the Air Force One, with her basic model of the aircraft still in use.
    Nonetheless, Eleanor Roosevelt was vital to her husband through her actions during World War II, whereas Jackie Kennedy did not face
    NHS, including importantly its inception. It too is a world war. She advocated on behalf of European refugees entering the USA, boosted soldiers’ morale, encouraged volunteerism on the home front,highly regarded book, written by delivering a radio address calling upon civilians to aid, and championed women employed inSenior Research Fellow at All souls College, Oxford. With the defence industry during wartime (see Appendix B). Moreover, she additionally pushed forJournal of the continuationRoyal college of Physician commenting on the New Deal programmes to helpsecond edition saying that “The first two chapters, which describe the country recover economically following the Great Depression, against the wishesorigins of her husbands’ advisors. She helped Jews escaping Nazi-occupied Europe, working with groups such as the Emergency Rescue CommitteeNHS, and take the US Committee forstory up to 1979, remain the Care of European Children.
    Although their fundamental achievements proved
    same – Dr Webster is too good an historian to be of political significance, nonetheless harsh criticism classed them as irrelevant political liabilities. Jackie was frequently condemnedrevise for her expenditures on fashion, stating, “I was always a liability to him [John F Kennedy], everyone thought I was a snob from Newport who had bouffant hair and had French clothes and hated politics.”[18] This direct quote from audio tapesrevision’s sake.” A possible limitation of interviews means that it can be trusted as itthe book is first-hand knowledge. She had no wishthat, according to be, “the Marie Antoinette or the Josephine ofIndependent, it is difficult for the 1960s”[19] knowing thatgeneral reader “not the media’s negative comments affected her husband. Moreover, Eleanor faced criticismideal guide for not being a traditional wife. Her active stance on civil rights (see Appendix B), unlike her husband who feared alienating Southern voters, particularly made her a political liability among Southerners. A Mississippi newspaper editorial entitled “Blood on Your Hands”, accused Eleanor for “personally proclaiming and practicing social equality at the White House and wherever she went.”[20] Her most vocal newspaper columnist critic, Westbrook Pegler, whogeneral reader. There is particularly partisan against Roosevelt and therefore cannot be fully deemed reliable and objective, stated, “I have been accused of rudeness to Mrs. Roosevelt whentoo much management structure, too many acronyms.” However I only said she was impudent, presumptuous and conspiratorial, and that her withdrawal from public life atdo not believe this time wouldwill be a fine public service.”[21]
    Demonstrably, both women were politically significant: they were popular, travelled and liked art. Conversely, Jackie Kennedy extended her interest in the arts to the historic role of restoring the White House, and Eleanor’s crucial actions during World War II helped mobilise the war effort. The idea that they were political liabilities to their husbands can be rejected because their achievements clearly outweighed criticisms. After all, Roosevelt stated, “A woman is like a tea bag. You don’t know how strong she is until she gets into hot water.”[22] The women’s discretion ultimately helped their husbands: both men were unfaithful yet they stuck by them to help their political careers. Nevertheless, arguably Eleanor was more significant politically than Jackie, for she played a more active role in gaining political, racial and social justice, championing civil rights for African Americans, women and American workers.
    [1] Kuhn, W. op. cit
    [2] Kuhn, W. ibid.
    [3] Kuhn, W. ibid.
    [4] Beasley, M. op. cit
    [5] Kuhn, W. op. cit
    [6] John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
    [7] Beasley, M. op. cit
    [8] Kuhn, W. op. cit
    [9] History.com
    [10] Kuhn, W. op. cit
    [11] Kuhn, W. ibid
    [12] History.com. op. cit
    [13] John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. op. cit
    [14] John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. ibid
    [15] A British sailing ship presented to President Hayes in 1878 by Queen Victoria
    [16] John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. op. cit
    [17] CuriosityStream. op. cit
    [18] BBC, 2011
    [19] Kuhn, W. op. cit
    [20] Critics at Large, 2016
    [21] Koch, C, 2016
    [22] Koch, C. ibid
    major issue.
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  5. page test edited Investigation ... have courage…”[1] not only put, “the ... by marrying JFK, she also JFK …

    Investigation
    ...
    have courage…”[1] not only put, “the
    ...
    by marrying JFK, she alsoJFK and became “…the
    ...
    with one real rival: Eleanor
    ...
    the question was important at the time and remains relevant
    ...
    Lady lacks an official definition, rendering it subject to change.definition. Particular interest
    ...
    husband’s future actions. Although unelected,actions and they are provided withgiven power to influence opinion and act as role models.opinion. The main
    ...
    them outweigh the criticisms they
    ...
    their husbands, sharingin terms of comparison they shared similar achievements as First Ladies concerning interactions
    ...
    Both were well-liked women of
    ...
    time and place, well-liked by the people.place: Eleanor Roosevelt has beenis classed as
    ...
    in American historyhistory[4] whilst, “Jackie
    ...
    to be beautiful.”[4]beautiful”[5] according to Kuhn’s hagiographical viewpoint, that nevertheless clearly presents the attitudes of the time. Their popularity
    ...
    important role models, withmodels: Americans applaudingapplauded Eleanor Roosevelt
    ...
    and political influenceinfluence, and Jackie becomingbecame an international
    ...
    style and sophistication, looked up tosophistication (see Appendix A), admired by many
    ...
    the arts. Jackie served as a travelling ambassador and used diplomatic occasions both at home and abroad to express core national values. HerJackie’s cultural interest
    ...
    a popular ambassador. Nottravelling ambassador who used diplomatic occasions to express core national values. She not only did she accompanyaccompanied her husband
    ...
    trips to France, Austria, the United Kingdom, Venezuela, Mexico, Costa RicaEurope and Columbia,Latin America, where she successfully promoted the Alliance for Progress through her eloquent speeches in Spanish (see Appendix A), she travelled
    ...
    warm reception she received in Paris in May 1961Paris, 1961, prompted JFK
    ...
    have enjoyed it.”[5]it.”[6] Similarly, Eleanor travelled extensively across the USAextensively, approximately 300 000 miles[7] in Franklin’s first two terms, reporting to
    ...
    institutions and facilities, relief projects, and observing working and living conditions. During Franklin’s first two terms she travelled approximately 300 000 miles.[6]projects. Furthermore, both women showed a great interest in the arts, withcultural interest: Eleanor supportingsupported government-funded programmes
    ...
    artists and writers and Jackie promoting historic preservation. “In the White House she sawJackie, “…saw her job
    ...
    arts in America.”[7] Within a month of becoming First Lady, she established the White House Fine Arts Committee of experts in historic preservation and decorative arts, and after learning that historic homes across the street from the White House were scheduled for demolition sheAmerica”[8], personally intervenedintervening to preserve
    ...
    Lafayette Square. Her interest extended beyondBeyond the border whenborder, she was involved in thehelped rescue of the ancient Egyptian temples at Abu Simbel that were threatened by
    ...
    Aswan Dam. Both women were not only similar
    Nevertheless,
    in their interests for travel and the arts, they also agreed on the principle roleterms of the First Lady. Jackie defined her role as, “to take care of the President”[8], highlighted by Eleanor’s transformation of the role from official host to important spokesperson for her husband’s administration, especially as she acted as his eyes and ears due to his bad health.
    Nevertheless,
    contrast both demonstrated
    ...
    with the media, proving to be essential to their respective husbands’ administrations.media. In February
    ...
    televised tour (see Appendix A), watched by 56 million[9] viewers, of the finished White House restoration, for which 56 million[9] viewers watched. Itshe was so well received that the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences awarded her an honorary
    ...
    little as possible.”[10] She regardedpossible”[10] and the restoration
    ...
    the White House, “as theHouse was, “the only thing
    ...
    Conversely, Eleanor heldwas the first and only First Lady to hold hundreds of
    ...
    barred from White House press conferences. Furthermore, she wrote athem (see Appendix B). Her newspaper column entitled, “My Day”Day”, became the most popular column, written from 1935
    ...
    death in 1962, using it1962 to share information about her activities and communicate her
    ...
    on various political and social issues. She was the first and only First Lady to hold her own press conference and meet with female reporters once a week. Because the role of women in the workplace was a big controversy at the time, Eleanor’s organised press conferences for females-only were met by criticism. She invited readers to write her with, “the particular problems which puzzle or sadden you, but I also want you to write me about what has brought joy into your life, and how you are adjusting yourself to the new conditions in this amazing changing world”[12].political/social issues (see Appendix B). By January
    ...
    300 000 letters[13]letters[12] according to Historynet.com, a website that gives access to a wide range of information but is not fully reliable and accurate, and opened
    ...
    Deal agenda. “My Day” became the most popular column because it spoke to the ordinary people and Eleanor wrote personal responses to 150 people a day[14] after receiving their complaints concerning unemployment and money.
    Furthermore, Jackie
    ...
    of the presidency.presidency, whereas Eleanor Roosevelt focused on political affairs. She sought
    ...
    the United States”[15] after her dismay at the lack of historical furnishings. She stated,States”[13], stating, “It must
    ...
    question of scholarship”[16] wanting to share her knowledge about the past with all Americans, especially children. Jackie and the White House Fine Arts Committee located pieces of furniture and artwork owned by previous presidents, and persuaded many to donate the furnishings. Restoration began inscholarship”[14]. In the Oval Office, where a desk
    ...
    the HMS Resolute (a British sailing ship presented by Queen Victoria to President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1878)Resolute**[15]** was placed
    ...
    remains today. The Rose Garden was redesigned into a natural sanctuary and acted as an ideal space to greet visitors. To avoid the politically controversial use of public money for the restoration, Jackie establishedmoney, the White House Historical Association, which publishedAssociation was established and the first
    ...
    House guidebook published in 1962. All1962, with all profits from the sale of the guidebook to tourists weresales being used to fund the restoration project.as funding. Within ten
    ...
    copies were sold[17]. “One of Jackie’s lesser-known projects insold[16]. The JFK Presidential Library and Museum is useful as a source to gain accurate information about the White House years was beginningKennedy’s, but it exaggerates the work to found a White House library, later completed under President Johnson.”[18] Furthermore, JackieCamelot image of JFK consequently distorting facts. She “designed the
    ...
    still used today”[19] bytoday”[17], even redesigning the
    ...
    still in use today.use.
    Nonetheless, Eleanor
    ...
    World War II.II, whereas Jackie Kennedy did not face a world war. She advocated
    ...
    European refugees who wanted to come toentering the USA, promoted issues of important to American troops, boosted soldiers’
    ...
    the home frontfront, by delivering a radio address calling upon civilians to aid, and championed
    ...
    industry during wartime.wartime (see Appendix B). Moreover, she delivered a radio address calling upon civilians to aid the war effort. Additionally, sheadditionally pushed for
    ...
    Deal programmes during the war to help
    ...
    the Great DepressionDepression, against the
    ...
    working with many groups such
    ...
    Children.
    Although many of their fundamental
    ...
    and hated politics.”[20]politics.”[18] This direct quote from audio tapes of interviews means that it can be trusted as it is first-hand knowledge. She had
    ...
    of the 1960s”[21]1960s”[19] knowing that
    ...
    her husband. Her own comment, “Indeed I think I am more like a state prisoner than anything else”[22] highlights her sense of being useless. Moreover, Eleanor faced criticism about her political activities, especially for not
    ...
    a traditional wife by not staying at home and taking care of Franklin.wife. Her active stance on civil rights, considered progressive for its time,rights (see Appendix B), unlike her husband who feared alienating Southern voters, particularly made
    ...
    liability among Southerners, annoying some of Franklin’s political advisors. She actively supported anti-lynching legislation, unlike her husband who was afraid of alienating Southern voters and received savage criticism from the conservative press when publicly celebrating her relationships with black Americans, her method of attacking racial inequality.Southerners. A Mississippi
    ...
    wherever she went.”[23]went.”[20] Her most vocal critic is the well-known newspaper columnist critic, Westbrook Pegler, who is particularly partisan against Roosevelt and therefore cannot be fully deemed reliable and objective, stated, “I
    ...
    fine public service.”[24]service.”[21]
    Demonstrably, both women were similarly politically significant:
    ...
    and liked the arts.art. Conversely, Jackie
    ...
    and Eleanor’s crucial actions during the Second World War proved to be crucial in mobilisingII helped mobilise the war
    ...
    idea that the womenthey were a political liabilityliabilities to their
    ...
    into hot water.”[25]water.”[22] The women’s discretion ultimately helped their husbands: both men were unfaithful yet they stuck by them to help their political careers. Nevertheless, arguably Eleanor Roosevelt was more
    ...
    politically than Jackie Kennedy,Jackie, for she
    ...
    African Americans, women,women and American workers, the poor and the young. She transformed the conventional role of First Lady from social host to an active participant in her husband’s administration.workers.
    [1] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21Kuhn, W. op. cit
    [2] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21Kuhn, W. ibid.
    [3] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21Kuhn, W. ibid.
    [4] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21Beasley, M. op. cit
    [5] Library, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy in the White House -Kuhn, W. op. cit
    [6]
    John F.
    ...
    Presidential Library &and Museum , Available at: https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Jacqueline-Kennedy-in-the-White-House.aspx
    [6]

    [7]
    Beasley, M, Last accessed 26th July 2017. Eleanor Roosevelt as First Lady | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Available at: https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/new-deal/essays/eleanor-roosevelt-first-lady
    [7] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    M. op. cit
    [8] Library, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy in the White House - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum , Available at: https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Jacqueline-Kennedy-in-the-White-House.aspxKuhn, W. op. cit
    [9] Website, H, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis - First Ladies - HISTORY.com, Available at: http://www.history.com/topics/first-ladies/jacqueline-kennedy-onassisHistory.com
    [10] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21Kuhn, W. op. cit
    [11] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21Kuhn, W. ibid
    [12] Website, H, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Eleanor Roosevelt | HistoryNet, Available at: http://www.historynet.com/eleanor-rooseveltHistory.com. op. cit
    [13] Website, H, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Eleanor Roosevelt | HistoryNet, Available at: http://www.historynet.com/eleanor-roosevelt
    [14] Corporation, B, Last accessed 26th July 2017. BBC World Service - The Documentary, Eleanor Roosevelt, Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p033y99x
    [15] Library, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy in the White House -
    John F.
    ...
    Presidential Library & Museum , Available at: https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Jacqueline-Kennedy-in-the-White-House.aspx
    [16] Library, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy in the White House -
    and Museum. op. cit
    [14]
    John F.
    ...
    Presidential Library & Museum , Available at: https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Jacqueline-Kennedy-in-the-White-House.aspx
    [17] Library, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy
    and Museum. ibid
    [15] A British sailing ship presented to President Hayes
    in the White House -1878 by Queen Victoria
    [16]
    John F.
    ...
    Presidential Library & Museum , Available at: https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Jacqueline-Kennedy-in-the-White-House.aspxand Museum. op. cit
    [17] CuriosityStream. op. cit

    [18] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21BBC, 2011
    [19] Website, C, Last accessed 30th July 2017. CuriosityStream, Available at: https://app.curiositystream.com/video/1685/jfk-fact-fableKuhn, W. op. cit
    [20] Website, B, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jackie Kennedy tapes: Excerpts - BBC News, Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-14911558Critics at Large, 2016
    [21] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21Koch, C, 2016
    [22] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [23] Unknown, A, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Critics At Large : Eleanor Roosevelt through Different Lenses (Part 2): Patricia Bell-Scott’s The Firebrand and the First Lady, Available at: http://www.criticsatlarge.ca/2016/07/eleanor-roosevelt-through-different_29.html
    [24] Crowson, Last accessed 30th July 2017. They Hated Eleanor, Too, Available at: http://fdrfoundation.org/they-hated-eleanor-too/comment-page-1/
    [25] Crowson, Last accessed 30th July 2017. They Hated Eleanor, Too, Available at: http://fdrfoundation.org/they-hated-eleanor-too/comment-page-1/
    Koch, C. ibid
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    2:15 am
  6. page test edited Identification Investigation “The woman who had taught a nation what it was like to have coura…

    IdentificationInvestigation
    “The woman who had taught a nation what it was like to have courage…”[1] not only put, “the stamp of good breeding
    and evaluationrespectability on a fortune…”[2] by marrying JFK, she also became “…the most unforgettably regal of twentieth-century first ladies…”[3] faced with one real rival: Eleanor Roosevelt. This investigation of sources
    This study will investigate
    the question, “Comparequestion was important at the time and contrastremains relevant today as the political significancerole of Jackie Kennedy and Eleanor Roosevelt during their husbands’ administration.” To keepFirst Lady lacks an official definition, rendering it subject to change. Particular interest surrounds the scopeadoption of this study manageable, I will focus on the women’s timerole by various women as their behaviour gives clues on their husband’s future actions. Although unelected, they are provided with power to influence opinion and act as role models. The main historical perspectives surrounding this question debate whether these First Ladies, disregardingLadies were politically significant to their husbands, or merely political liabilities. This essay seeks to analyse similarities and differences between them, and concludes that changes triggered by them outweigh criticisms they received.
    Indisputably, both women were of political significance to their husbands, sharing similar
    achievements pre-as First Ladies concerning interactions with the public. Both were women of their time and post-White House. Beyondplace, well-liked by the two sources chosen for evaluation,people. Eleanor Roosevelt has been classed as one of the study will make usemost admired women in American history whilst, “Jackie fit many people’s definition of what it was to be beautiful.”[4] Their popularity led to a rangetransformation into important role models, with Americans applauding Eleanor Roosevelt for her activism on behalf of sources, a full listsocial issues and political influence and Jackie becoming an international icon of which are included instyle and sophistication, looked up to by many for her elegant fashion sense. Her status as a trendsetter allowed her to influence designers, magazines, newspapers and the bibliography. These includepublic.
    Moreover, both consolidated their public image through various similar interests, such as travel and the arts. Jackie served as
    a ZDF History documentary[1] specifically useful for understanding Jackie’s roletravelling ambassador and used diplomatic occasions both at home and abroad to express core national values. Her cultural interest and fluency in the Kennedy family,languages made her worldwide a BBC World Service podcast[2] offering rare detailspopular ambassador. Not only did she accompany her husband on Eleanortrips to France, Austria, the United Kingdom, Venezuela, Mexico, Costa Rica and Columbia, she travelled as her husbands’ representative to India, Italy and Pakistan. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History[3] essays’ objective information onwarm reception she received in Paris in May 1961 prompted JFK to famously state, “I do not think it altogether appropriate to introduce myself…I am the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris, and I have enjoyed it.”[5] Similarly, Eleanor travelled extensively across the USA reporting to her husband after visiting government institutions and facilities, relief projects, and observing working and living conditions. During Franklin’s first two terms she travelled approximately 300 000 miles.[6] Furthermore, both women showed a great interest in the arts, with Eleanor supporting government-funded programmes for artists and writers and Jackie promoting historic preservation. “In the White House she saw her job as nothing less than raising the profile of the creative arts in America.”[7] Within a month of becoming First Lady.
    The first source selected
    Lady, she established the White House Fine Arts Committee of experts in historic preservation and decorative arts, and after learning that historic homes across the street from the White House were scheduled for detailed evaluation isdemolition she personally intervened to preserve the historical identity of the book Reading Jackie:famous Lafayette Square. Her Autobiographyinterest extended beyond the border when she was involved in Books**[4]**the rescue of the ancient Egyptian temples at Abu Simbel that were threatened by William Kuhn published in 2010floodwaters from the Aswan Dam. Both women were not only similar in their interests for travel and the United Statesarts, they also agreed on the principle role of America by Anchor Books. This source is particularly relevant to my specific investigation becausethe First Lady. Jackie Kennedy never wrote a memoir and this book provides insights intodefined her life from interviews with friends and relatives. The originrole as, “to take care of this source isthe President”[8], highlighted by Eleanor’s transformation of the role from historianofficial host to important spokesperson for her husband’s administration, especially as she acted as his eyes and biographer William Kuhn; therefore, we can deduce that its purpose isears due to inform readers about Jackie’s life usinghis bad health.
    Nevertheless, both demonstrated decisive differences in their interactions with the media, proving to be essential to their respective husbands’ administrations. In February 1962, Jackie gave
    a rangetelevised tour of primary sourcesthe finished White House restoration, which 56 million[9] viewers watched. It was so well received that provide useful insights into the eventsAcademy of the time. On this basis, it is valuable forTelevision Arts and Sciences awarded her an investigationhonorary Emmy Award. However, “…Jackie’s attitude to reporters had always been that they should be told as little as possible.”[10] She regarded the restoration of the key questions becauseWhite House, “as the only thing of hers that belonged to the public.”[11] Conversely, Eleanor held hundreds of press conferences for female reporters at a time when women were typically barred from White House press conferences. Furthermore, she wrote a newspaper column entitled, “My Day” from 1935 until her death in 1962, using it successfully provides hindsightto share information about her activities and objectivity, supported by journalist Bill Moyers’ statement, “William Kuhn revealscommunicate her positions on various political and social issues. She was the Jackie I knew as a personfirst and professional…”.[5] Nevertheless,only First Lady to hold her own press conference and meet with female reporters once a week. Because the source does have some limitationsrole of women in the workplace was a big controversy at the time, Eleanor’s organised press conferences for thisfemales-only were met by criticism. She invited readers to write her with, “the particular investigation asproblems which puzzle or sadden you, but I also want you to write me about what has brought joy into your life, and how you are adjusting yourself to the new conditions in this amazing changing world”[12]. By January 1934 she had received 300 000 letters[13] and opened a valuable discussion forum that helped her husband propel the New Deal agenda. “My Day” became the most popular column because it only offersspoke to the ordinary people and Eleanor wrote personal responses to 150 people a hagiographical perspective ofday[14] after receiving their complaints concerning unemployment and money.
    Furthermore,
    Jackie Kennedy, thereby excluding sources that provideKennedy played a negative view of her. This creates a superficial overviewsignificant role by crucially restoring the White House and narrow depth studyredefining the symbols of the presidency. She sought to make the White House, “the most perfect house in the United States”[15] after her lifedismay at the lack of historical furnishings. She stated, “It must be restored – and achievements.
    The second source selected for detailed evaluation
    that has nothing to do with decoration. That is a question of scholarship”[16] wanting to share her knowledge about the documentary film JFK: Fact & Fable**[6]** producedpast with all Americans, especially children. Jackie and the White House Fine Arts Committee located pieces of furniture and artwork owned by CuriosityStream in 2016. This source is notably relevantprevious presidents, and persuaded many to my particular investigation because it reveals how Jackie’s extensive influence createddonate the furnishings. Restoration began in the Oval Office, where a much-adored legend outdesk made from the timbers of John F. Kennedy.the HMS Resolute (a British sailing ship presented by Queen Victoria to President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1878) was placed and remains today. The origin of this source isRose Garden was redesigned into a film created bynatural sanctuary and acted as an American production companyideal space to greet visitors. To avoid the politically controversial use of public money for the restoration, Jackie established the White House Historical Association, which published the first official White House guidebook in 2016; therefore, we can deduce that its purpose is1962. All profits from the sale of the guidebook to inform viewers on how JFKtourists were used to fund the restoration project. Within ten months of publication, after having chosen the photographs, layout and text herself, 500 000 copies were sold[17]. “One of Jackie’s lesser-known projects in the White House years was beginning the work to found a White House library, later completed under President Johnson.”[18] Furthermore, Jackie created“designed the ‘modern presidency’symbols of presidential power still used today”[19] by using facts and opinions from historians. On this basis, it is valuable for an investigationredesigning the Air Force One, with her basic model of the key question because it gives insight intoaircraft still in use today.
    Nonetheless, Eleanor Roosevelt was vital to her husband through her actions during World War II. She advocated on behalf of European refugees who wanted to come to
    the attitudesUSA, promoted issues of important to American troops, boosted soldiers’ morale, encouraged volunteerism on the time towardshome front and championed women employed in the ‘modern presidency’defence industry during wartime. Moreover, she delivered a radio address calling upon civilians to aid the war effort. Additionally, she pushed for the continuation of the New Deal programmes during the war to help the country recover economically following Eisenhower’s administration and reveals little-known factsthe Great Depression against the wishes of her husbands’ advisors. She helped Jews escaping Nazi-occupied Europe, working with many groups such as thatthe Emergency Rescue Committee and the US Committee for the Care of European Children.
    Although many of their fundamental achievements proved to be of political significance, nonetheless harsh criticism classed them as irrelevant political liabilities.
    Jackie was behindfrequently condemned for her expenditures on fashion, stating, “I was always a liability to him [John F Kennedy], everyone thought I was a snob from Newport who had bouffant hair and had French clothes and hated politics.”[20] She had no wish to be, “the Marie Antoinette or the appearanceJosephine of the Air Force One. Nevertheless,1960s”[21] knowing that the source does have some limitationsmedia’s negative comments affected her husband. Her own comment, “Indeed I think I am more like a state prisoner than anything else”[22] highlights her sense of being useless. Moreover, Eleanor faced criticism about her political activities, especially for this particular investigation because it is narratednot being a traditional wife by historiannot staying at home and author Thurston Clarke whose, “…efforts…to inflate Kennedy’s achievements distracttaking care of Franklin. Her stance on civil rights, considered progressive for its time, particularly made her a political liability among Southerners, annoying some of Franklin’s political advisors. She actively supported anti-lynching legislation, unlike her husband who was afraid of alienating Southern voters and received savage criticism from his actual accomplishmentsthe conservative press when publicly celebrating her relationships with black Americans, her method of attacking racial inequality. A Mississippi newspaper editorial entitled “Blood on Your Hands”, accused Eleanor for “personally proclaiming and influence, and…make it…feel likepracticing social equality at the White House and wherever she went.”[23] Her most vocal critic is the well-known newspaper columnist Westbrook Pegler, who stated, “I have been accused of rudeness to Mrs. Roosevelt when I only said she was impudent, presumptuous and conspiratorial, and that her withdrawal from public life at this time would be a sentimental workfine public service.”[24]
    Demonstrably, both women were similarly politically significant: they were popular, travelled and liked the arts. Conversely, Jackie Kennedy extended her interest in the arts to the historic role
    of hagiography.”[7] He failsrestoring the White House, and Eleanor’s actions during the Second World War proved to consider Kennedy’s clear failures, such asbe crucial in mobilising the ill-fated Bay of Pigs invasionwar effort. The idea that the women were a political liability to their husbands can be rejected because their achievements clearly outweighed criticisms. After all, Roosevelt stated, “A woman is like a tea bag. You don’t know how strong she is until she gets into hot water.”[25] Nevertheless, arguably Eleanor Roosevelt was more significant politically than Jackie Kennedy, for she played a more active role in gaining political, racial and social justice, championing civil rights for African Americans, women, American workers, the poor and the young. She transformed the conventional role of 1961.First Lady from social host to an active participant in her husband’s administration.
    [1] ZDF History, 2017Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [2] BBC World Service, 2015Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [3] Beasley, MScs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [4] Kuhn, W, 2010Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [5] Kuhn, W. ibid.Library, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy in the White House - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum , Available at: https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Jacqueline-Kennedy-in-the-White-House.aspx
    [6] CuriosityStream, 2016
    [7] Kakutani,
    Beasley, M, 2013Last accessed 26th July 2017. Eleanor Roosevelt as First Lady | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Available at: https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/new-deal/essays/eleanor-roosevelt-first-lady
    [7] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [8] Library, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy in the White House - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum , Available at: https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Jacqueline-Kennedy-in-the-White-House.aspx
    [9] Website, H, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis - First Ladies - HISTORY.com, Available at: http://www.history.com/topics/first-ladies/jacqueline-kennedy-onassis
    [10] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [11] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [12] Website, H, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Eleanor Roosevelt | HistoryNet, Available at: http://www.historynet.com/eleanor-roosevelt
    [13] Website, H, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Eleanor Roosevelt | HistoryNet, Available at: http://www.historynet.com/eleanor-roosevelt
    [14] Corporation, B, Last accessed 26th July 2017. BBC World Service - The Documentary, Eleanor Roosevelt, Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p033y99x
    [15] Library, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy in the White House - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum , Available at: https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Jacqueline-Kennedy-in-the-White-House.aspx
    [16] Library, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy in the White House - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum , Available at: https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Jacqueline-Kennedy-in-the-White-House.aspx
    [17] Library, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jacqueline Kennedy in the White House - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum , Available at: https://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Jacqueline-Kennedy-in-the-White-House.aspx
    [18] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [19] Website, C, Last accessed 30th July 2017. CuriosityStream, Available at: https://app.curiositystream.com/video/1685/jfk-fact-fable
    [20] Website, B, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Jackie Kennedy tapes: Excerpts - BBC News, Available at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-14911558
    [21] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [22] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [23] Unknown, A, Last accessed 30th July 2017. Critics At Large : Eleanor Roosevelt through Different Lenses (Part 2): Patricia Bell-Scott’s The Firebrand and the First Lady, Available at: http://www.criticsatlarge.ca/2016/07/eleanor-roosevelt-through-different_29.html
    [24] Crowson, Last accessed 30th July 2017. They Hated Eleanor, Too, Available at: http://fdrfoundation.org/they-hated-eleanor-too/comment-page-1/
    [25] Crowson, Last accessed 30th July 2017. They Hated Eleanor, Too, Available at: http://fdrfoundation.org/they-hated-eleanor-too/comment-page-1/

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  7. page test edited This Identification and evaluation of sources This study will ... as First Ladies of the US…

    ThisIdentification and evaluation of sources
    This
    study will
    ...
    as First Ladies of the USA,Ladies, disregarding their
    ...
    chosen for evaluation (below),evaluation, the study
    ...
    offering rare informationdetails on Eleanor Roosevelt and The
    ...
    information on Eleanor’s roleEleanor as First
    ...
    first source I have selected for
    ...
    is the book,book Reading Jackie:
    ...
    source is a work from historian
    ...
    using a wide range of
    ...
    sources that give aprovide useful insightinsights into the
    ...
    the key questionquestions because it
    ...
    person and professional…”[5].professional…”.[5] Nevertheless, the
    ...
    particular investigation because historians are biased andas it only includeoffers a hagiographical perspective of Jackie Kennedy, thereby excluding sources that support their viewpoint. William Kuhn may have excluded sources that disagreed with his largely positiveprovide a negative view of Jackie Kennedy.her. This providescreates a superficial
    ...
    second source I have selected for
    ...
    created by thean American production company CuriosityStream in 2016, therefore from this2016; therefore, we can
    ...
    by using objective facts and
    ...
    following Eisenhower’s administration,administration and informs viewers on little knownreveals little-known facts such
    ...
    Thurston Clarke whose, “…efforts…to inflate Kennedy’s achievements distract from his actual accomplishments and the Kennedy biographer Larry Sabato. They focus too much on their own personal opinions that are subjective and paint John F. Kennedy asinfluence, and…make it…feel like a hero, clearly not highlighting the President’ssentimental work of hagiography.”[7] He fails to consider Kennedy’s clear failures, such
    ...
    invasion of 1961, enough.1961.
    [1] ZDF, Last accessed 25th July 2017. Die Geheimnisse der Kennedy-Frauen - ZDFmediathek , Available at: https://www.zdf.de/dokumentation/zdf-history/die-geheimnisse-der-kennedy-frauen-100.htmlZDF History, 2017
    [2] Corporation, B, Last accessed 26th July 2017. BBC World Service - The Documentary, Eleanor Roosevelt, Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p033y99xService, 2015
    [3] Beasley, M, Last accessed 26th July 2017. Eleanor Roosevelt as First Lady | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Available at: https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/new-deal/essays/eleanor-roosevelt-first-ladyM
    [4] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21Kuhn, W, 2010
    [5] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21Kuhn, W. ibid.
    [6] Website, C, Last accessed 30th July 2017. CuriosityStream, Available at: https://app.curiositystream.com/video/1685/jfk-fact-fable2016
    [7] Kakutani, M, 2013

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  8. page test edited Compare This study will investigate the question, “Compare and contrast ... their husbands’ …

    CompareThis study will investigate the question, “Compare and contrast
    ...
    their husbands’ administrations.
    History Internal Assessment
    administration.” To keep the scope of this study manageable, I will focus on the women’s time as First Ladies of the USA, disregarding their achievements pre- and post-White House. Beyond the two sources chosen for evaluation (below), the study will make use of a range of sources, a full list of which are included in the bibliography. These include a ZDF History documentary[1] specifically useful for understanding Jackie’s role in the Kennedy family, a BBC World Service podcast[2] offering rare information on Eleanor Roosevelt and The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History[3] essays’ objective information on Eleanor’s role as First Lady.
    The first source I have selected for detailed evaluation is the book, Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books**[4]** by William Kuhn published in 2010 in the United States of America by Anchor Books. This source is particularly relevant to my specific investigation because Jackie Kennedy never wrote a memoir and this book provides insights into her life from interviews with friends and relatives. The origin of this source is a work from historian and biographer William Kuhn; therefore, we can deduce that its purpose is to inform readers about Jackie’s life using a wide range of primary sources that give a useful insight into the events of the time. On this basis, it is valuable for an investigation of the key question because it successfully provides hindsight and objectivity, supported by journalist Bill Moyers’ statement, “William Kuhn reveals the Jackie I knew as a person and professional…”[5]. Nevertheless, the source does have some limitations for this particular investigation because historians are biased and only include sources that support their viewpoint. William Kuhn may have excluded sources that disagreed with his largely positive view of Jackie Kennedy. This provides a superficial overview and narrow depth study of her life and achievements.
    The second source I have selected for detailed evaluation is the documentary film JFK: Fact & Fable**[6]** produced by CuriosityStream in 2016. This source is notably relevant to my particular investigation because it reveals how Jackie’s extensive influence created a much-adored legend out of John F. Kennedy. The origin of this source is a film created by the production company CuriosityStream in 2016, therefore from this we can deduce that its purpose is to inform viewers on how JFK and Jackie created the ‘modern presidency’ by using objective facts and opinions from historians. On this basis, it is valuable for an investigation of the key question because it gives insight into the attitudes of the time towards the ‘modern presidency’ following Eisenhower’s administration, and informs viewers on little known facts such as that Jackie was behind the appearance of the Air Force One. Nevertheless, the source does have some limitations for this particular investigation because it is narrated by historian and author Thurston Clarke and the Kennedy biographer Larry Sabato. They focus too much on their own personal opinions that are subjective and paint John F. Kennedy as a hero, clearly not highlighting the President’s failures, such as the ill-fated Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961, enough.
    [1] ZDF, Last accessed 25th July 2017. Die Geheimnisse der Kennedy-Frauen - ZDFmediathek , Available at: https://www.zdf.de/dokumentation/zdf-history/die-geheimnisse-der-kennedy-frauen-100.html
    [2] Corporation, B, Last accessed 26th July 2017. BBC World Service - The Documentary, Eleanor Roosevelt, Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p033y99x
    [3] Beasley, M, Last accessed 26th July 2017. Eleanor Roosevelt as First Lady | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, Available at: https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/new-deal/essays/eleanor-roosevelt-first-lady
    [4] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [5] Scs, A, Last accessed 28th July 2017. Reading Jackie: Her Autobiography in Books: Amazon.co.uk: William Kuhn: 9780385530996: Books, Available at: https://www.amazon.co.uk/exec/obidos/ASIN/0385530994/activehistory-21
    [6] Website, C, Last accessed 30th July 2017. CuriosityStream, Available at: https://app.curiositystream.com/video/1685/jfk-fact-fable

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